Chapter 9- Cognitive Development In Early Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9- Cognitive Development In Early Childhood Deck (126):

List three important changes in make-believe play during early childhood and give an example of each

Play detaches from the real life conditions associated with it: in early pretending, toddlers use only realistic objects-a toy telephone to talk into or a cup to drink from. Children younger than age 2, for example, will pretend to drink from a cup but refused to pretend a cup is a hat
After age 2, children pretend with less realistic toys-for example a block for a telephone receiver and gradually, they can flexibly imagine objects and events without support from the real world

Play becomes less self-centered: at first, make-believe is directed toward the self such as pretending to feed only yourself. Soon, children begin to direct pretend actions toward objects, as when a child feeds a doll.

Play includes more complex combinations of schemes: children combine schemes with those of peers in socio-dramatic play, make-believe with others that is underway by the end of the second year and that increases rapidly and complexity during early childhood. A child and his classmates can create and coordinate several roles in an elaborate plot


The make-believe with others that is underway by the end of the second year and that increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood

Socio-dramatic play


Summarize contributions of make-believe play to children's cognitive and social development

Cognitive: strengthens a wide variety of mental abilities, including sustained attention, memory, logical reasoning, language and literacy, imagination, creativity, and the ability to reflect on one's own thinking, regulate one's emotions and behavior, and take another's perspective

Social: some preschoolers and young school-age children create imaginary companions: special fantasized friends endowed with humanlike qualities. Children with an invisible playmate typically treat it with care and affection and say it offers caring, comfort, and good company. Such children also display more complex and imaginative pretend play, are advanced in understanding others viewpoints and emotions, and are more sociable with peers


True or false: recent research indicates that the creation of imaginary companions is a sign of maladjustment: explain your answer

False, children with an invisible playmate typically treat it with care and affection and Sayed offers caring, comfort, and good company, just as a real friendships do and such children also display more complex and imaginative pretend play, art events did understanding others viewpoints and emotions, and are more sociable with peers


Describe three strategies for enhancing preschoolers make-believe play

Provide sufficient space and play materials: generous space and materials allow for many play options and reduce conflict

Encourage children's play without controlling it: model, guide, and build on young preschoolers play themes, provide open-ended suggestions, and talk with a child about the thoughts, motivations, and emotions of play characters. Refrain from directing the child's play

Offer a variety of both realistic materials and materials without clear functions: children use realistic materials, such as trucks, dolls, tea sets, dress up clothes, and toy scenes to act out every day roles in their culture. Materials without their functions such as blocks, cardboard cylinders, paper bags, and sand, inspire fantastic role-play, such as pirate and creature from outer space

Ensure that children have many rich, real world experiences to inspire positive fantasy play

Help children solve social conflicts constructively


Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol. Give an example

Dual representation

When children understand that a map represents a place in the real world


What factors contribute to children's understanding of dual representation?

When adults point out similarities between models and real world spaces, exposing young children to diverse symbols-picture books, photographs, drawings, make-believe, and maps-helps them appreciate that one object can stand for another


Piaget described preschoolers in terms of what they can/cannot understand


He compared them to older, more competent children who have reached the concrete operational stage. Young children are not capable of operations, they're thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment


For Piaget, this is the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking, the failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own



According to Piaget, young children are not capable of _________, or mental actions that obey logical rules



The preoperational belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, and intentions

Animistic thinking


According to Piaget, this refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. Give an example


When two glasses of water have the same amount of water in them, but when one is poured into a bigger container, children think there is less water in the larger container, they think the quantity has changed


The inability to conserve highlights three aspects of preoperational children's thinking:

Their understanding is centered, or characterized by centration, children are easily distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects, children treat the initial and final states of objects as unrelated events, ignoring the dynamic transformation between them. Preoperational thought is irreversible


According to Piaget, children focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features


In conservation of liquid, the child centers on the height of the water, failing to realize that changes in width compensate for the changes in height


The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought, and inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point



According to Piaget, preoperational children have difficulty with this, the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences. What Piagetian task demonstrates this limitation?

Hierarchical classification. The class inclusion problem demonstrates this limitation. When children are shown 16 flowers, four of which are blue and 12 of which are red and asked are there more red flowers or flowers, the child responds that there are more red flowers because preoperational children center on the overriding feature, read. They do not think reversibly, moving from the whole class of flowers to the parts red and blue and back again


Current research challenges/supports Piaget's view of preschoolers as cognitively deficient

Challenges. Because many of his problems contain unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information for young children to handle at once, preschoolers responses often do not reflect their true abilities and he also missed many naturally occurring incidences of effective reasoning by preschoolers


What are two examples of non-egocentric responses in preschoolers everyday interactions

Two-year-old realize what that they see is sometimes different from what another person sees-when asked to help an adult look for a lost object, two-year-olds but not 18-month-old's handed her a toy resting behind a bucket that was within their line of sight but not the adults

Non-egocentric response is also appear in young children's conversations-preschoolers adapt their speech to fit the needs of their listeners for example, four-year-old use shorter, simpler expressions when talking to a 2 -year-old then to an agemate or adult


Piaget overestimated/underestimated preschoolers animistic beliefs. Provide evidence to support your answer

Overestimated. Even infants have begun to distinguish animate from inanimate, as indicated by the remarkable categorical distinctions among living and nonliving things. Children rarely attribute biological properties like eating and growing to robots, indicating that they are well aware that even a self moving object with life like features is not alive


Between four and eight years of age, as familiarity with physical events and principles increases, children's magical beliefs increase/decline



Provide an example of how religion and culture contribute to how quickly children give up certain fantastic ideas

Jewish children are more likely than their Christian age mates to express just believe in Santa Claus and the tooth fairy. Having heard at home that Santa is imaginary, they seem to generalize this attitude two other magical figures. And cultural myths about wishing-for example, the custom of making a wish before blowing out birthday candles-probably underlie the conviction of all 3 to 6-year-olds that by wishing, you can sometimes make your desires come true


Provide an example of how preschoolers are capable of logical thought when given tasks that are simplified and made relevant to their everyday lives

When a conservation of numbers task is scaled-down to include only three items instead of six or seven, three-year-olds perform well. And when preschoolers are asked carefully worded questions about what happens to substances such as sugar after they are dissolved in water, they give accurate explanation


In what order does categorization develop in most children?

Basic level categories, general categories, subcategories


What is an example of a basic level category, general category, and subcategory?

Basic level category: the ones at an intermediate level of generality, such as chairs, tables, and beds

General categories: furniture

Sub categories: rocking chairs and desk chairs


List two factors that support preschoolers impressive skill at categorizing

There rapidly expanding vocabulary and general knowledge. As they learn more about their world, they devised theories about underline characteristics that category members share, which help them identify new instances


How can adult strength in children's categorical learning?

Adult-child conversations are major sources of categorical learning. Adults frequently label and explain categories to young children

Picture book reading is in especially rich context for understanding. While looking at books with preschoolers, parents provide information that guides children's inferences about the structure of categories

Answering the questions that young children ask and giving them informative answers


What factor largely accounts for young children's difficulty on appearance-reality problems?

They have trouble with the language of these tasks. When permitted to solve appearance-reality problems nonverbally, by selecting from an array of objects the one that really has a particular identity, most three-year-olds perform well


At all ages between one and five years, the majority of children's questions are information-seeking/non-information-seeking

Information seeking


How does a child's questioning behavior change with age?

At every age between one and five years, children's questions are information seeking. From age 2 on, children increasingly build on their fact oriented questions with follow-up questions that ask for causes and explanations. By age 3 1/2, these sets of building questions made up about half of children's questions, confirming that preschoolers ask questions purposefully, in an effort to obtain clarifying information about things that puzzle them

At a time when vocabulary is advancing rapidly, about 60% of 1 1/2 to 2-year-olds questions ask for names of objects. With age, preschoolers increasingly ask about function, activity, state, and theory of mind


How do you parents adjust the complexity of their answers to fit their children's maturity?

Especially for one and two-year-olds, parents often include additional relevant knowledge aimed at enhancing children's understanding and guiding further thinking. To a question like why does the light come on, three-year-olds typically get simpler, prior cause explanations like I turned on the switch. Slightly older children frequently get mechanism explanations, the switch allows electricity to reach the lightbulb


The findings that logical operations develop gradually across the preschool years support/challenges Piaget's stages concept



Some neo-Piagetian theorists combine Piaget's stage concept with the information-processing emphasis on task-specific change. Briefly describe this viewpoint

They believe that Piaget's strict stage definition must be transformed into a less tightly knit concept, one in which a related set of competencies develop over an extended period, depending on brain development and specific experiences. These investigators point to findings indicating that as long as the complexity of tasks and children's exposure to them are carefully controlled, children approach these tasks in similar, stage consistent ways


List and describe three educational principles derived from Piaget's theory

Discovery learning: children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Instead of presenting ready-made knowledge verbally, teachers provide a rich variety of activities designed to promote exploration and discovery

Sensitivity to children's readiness to learn: teachers introduce activities that build on children's current thinking, challenging their incorrect ways of viewing the world but they do not try to speed up development by imposing new skills before children are ready

Acceptance of individual differences: assumes that all children go through the same sequences of development, but at different rates. Teachers must plan activities for individual children and small groups, not just for the whole class


What is perhaps the greatest challenge to educational applications of Piaget's theory?

His insistence that young children learn primarily through acting on the environment. Children also use language-based routes to knowledge-a point emphasized by Vygotsky's sociocultural theory


According to Vygotsky, children speak to themselves for self guidance. This self-directed speech is called

Private speech


Contrast Piaget's view of children's egocentric speech with Vygotsky's view of private speech

Piaget: called children's utterances egocentric speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others. Their talk is for themselves regardless of whether a listener can understand and cognitive development and social experiences eventually bring an end to this type of speech

Vygotsky: disagree strongly with Piaget's conclusions. Because language helps children think about their mental activities and behavior and select courses of actions, he viewed it as a foundation for all higher cognitive processes, including controlled attention, deliberate memorization and recall, categorization, planning, problem-solving, and self reflection. Children speak to themselves for self guidance, as they get older and find tasks easier, their self directed speech is internalized as silent, in her speech-the internal verbal dialogue see carry-on while thinking and acting in every day situations


Most research findings have supported Piaget's/Vygotsky's View of private speech



Under what circumstances are children likely to use private speech?

When tasks are appropriately challenging, neither too easy nor too hard but within their zone of proximal development or range of mastery


Vygotsky believed children's learning takes place within this, a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of others

Zone of proximal development


According to Vygotsky, The process by which two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding

Intersubjectivity. Creates a common ground for communication, as each partner adjusts to the others perspective. As a child stretches to understand the adult, they are drawn into a more mature approach to the situation


According to Vygotsky, this means adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance

Scaffolding. When the child has little notion of how to proceed, The adult uses direct instruction, breaking the task into manageable units, suggesting strategies, and offering rationales for using them. As a child's confidence increases, scaffolders gradually and sensitively withdraw support, turning over responsibility to the child


Vygotsky. A broader concept then scaffolding. It refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication. Allows for variations across situations and cultures

Guided participation


Describe features of effective adult scaffolding that foster children's cognitive development

Parents who use more private speech, we're more successful when attempting difficult tasks on their own, and where advanced in overall cognitive development. Adult cognitive support, teaching in small steps and offering strategies-predicts children's mature thinking. And adult emotional support, offering encouragement and transferring responsibility to the child, predicts children's effort


Vygotskian classrooms emphasize __________ discovery, in which teachers guide children's learning, and _____ __________, in which children of varying abilities and skill levels work together

Assisted discovery; peer collaboration


Vygotsky saw this as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood. Explain why

Make-believe play. As children create an imaginary situations, they learn to follow internal ideas and social rules rather than their immediate impulses. Make-believe play is a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development in which children try out a wide variety of challenging activities and acquire many new competencies

Pretending is also rich in private speech, a finding that supports its role in helping children bring action under the control of thought. Preschoolers who spend more time engaged and socio-dramatic play are better at taking personal responsibility for following classroom rules and at regulating emotion


List two contributions and two criticisms of Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development

In granting social experience a fundamental role in cognitive development, his theory underscores the vital role of teaching and helps us understand the wide cultural variation in children's cognitive skills

Limitations: verbal communication may not be the only means through which children's thinking develops or even, in some cultures, the most important means
Says little about how basic motor, perceptual, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes


How do middle-SES parents interactions with children compare to parents interactions in village and tribal cultures?

In early childhood, middle-SES parents interactions with children dwell on preparing children to succeed in school through child focused activities, especially adult-child conversations and play that enhance language, literacy, and other school-related knowledge

In village and tribal cultures, children receive little or no schooling, spend their days in contact with or participating in adult work, and start to assume that your responsibilities in early childhood. Consequently, parents have little need to rely on conversation and play to teach children


Yucatec Mayan parents expect young children to be self-sufficient. Provide an example of this

Young children make many nonwork decisions for themselves, how much to sleep and eat, what to wear, when to take their daily bath, and even went to start school. They are highly competent at self-care and their make-believe play is limited


An American/Mayan child is more likely to display attention-getting behaviors



What factors are responsible for gains in sustained attention during early childhood?

A steady gain in children's ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on a competing goal

The capacity to generate increasingly complex play goals that require concentration and adult scaffolding of attention also contribute to the development of attention


How can a high-quality preschool curriculum assist in the development of sustained attention

In tools of the mind, a preschool curriculum inspired by Vygotsky's Siri, scaffolding of attention skills is woven into virtually all classroom activities. Teachers provide external aids to support attention such as holding a drawing of an ear as a reminder to listen and refrain from interrupting a classmate who is telling a story. Teachers also league games requiring frequent inhibition and memory for instructions and they encourage make-believe play, which helps children follow rules and use thought to guide behavior


Describe preschoolers ability to plan, including what they are likely to plan well, as well as limitations and they're planning abilities

As long as tasks are familiar and not too complex, preschoolers can generate and follow a plan. For example, four-year-olds can search for a lost object in a play area systematically if possible locations are few. But when asked to compare detailed pictures, preschoolers failed to search thoroughly and on tasks with several steps, they often fail to decide what to do first and what to do next in an orderly fashion.

They seem to have difficulty postponing action in favor of mapping out a sequence of moves and evaluating the consequences of each, procedures that require intervention and increased working-memory capacity in addition to planning skill


Explain how cultural tool support planning skills

Cultural tools that support planning our directions for playing games, patterns for construction, and recipes for cooking. When parents encourage planning in every day activities, from loading the dishwasher to packing for a vacation, they help children plan more effectively


Preschoolers recall memory is much better/worse than their recognition memory



Preschoolers are ineffective at using these, deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering

Memory strategies.

Young children seldom use memory strategies because the strategies tax their limited working memories. With such limits, preschoolers have difficulty holding onto pieces of information while simultaneously applying a strategy


Your memory for everyday experiences is called: Give an example

Episodic memory.

In remembering every day experiences, you recall complex, meaningful information. When looking at a set of photos, a person remembers not just the people in the photos but the context in which they were


Like adults, preschoolers remember familiar, repeated events in terms of these. General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation



What are the benefits of using scripts to aid memory and recall?

Scripts help children organize, interpret, and predict every day experiences. Once formed, they can be used to predict what will happen on similar occasions in the future. And Scripps support children's earliest afterwards at planning by helping them represent sequences of actions that lead to desired goals


How does autobiographical memory change in early childhood?

As 3 to 6-year-olds cognitive and conversational skills improve, their descriptions of special events become better organized in time, more detailed, enriched with personal perspective, and related to the larger context of their lives. Older preschoolers includes specifics, where and when the event happened and who was present and increasingly include subjective information that explain the events personal significance


I don't use two styles to elicit children's autobiographical narrative:

The elaborative style: they follow the child's lead, ask varied questions, add information to the child statements, and volunteer their own recollections and evaluation of events.
Helps the children reestablish and reorganize their memories

The repetitive style: provide little information and keep repeating the same questions, regardless of the child's interest.

Preschoolers who experience the elaborative style recall more information about past events and also produce more organized and detailed personal stories one followed up 1 to 2 years later


How do cultural values influence children's narratives about past events?

Western children typically include more comments about their own thoughts, emotions, and preferences then do Asian children. collectivist cultural values lead many Asian parents to discourage children from talking about themselves. Western adult autobiographical memories include earlier, more detailed events that focus more on their own roles then do the memories of Asians, who tend to highlight the roles of mothers


According to this theory, when given challenging problems, children try out various strategies and observe which work best, which work less well, and which are ineffective

Seiglers overlapping-waves theory


According to Siegler, what two criteria do children used to select problem-solving strategies?

Accuracy and speed. For basic addition, the min strategy


List three factors that facilitate children's movement from less to more efficient problem-solving strategies

They discover a faster procedure by using a more time-consuming technique
Certain problems dramatize the need for a better strategy
A large improvement in the accuracy of a newly discovered strategy over previous strategies generally leads to rapid adoption of the new approach

Many factors, including practice, reasoning, tasks with new challenges , And adult assistance, contribute to improve problem-solving


As representation of the world, memory, and problem-solving improve, children start to reflect on their own thought processes. They begin to construct a theory of mind, or coherent set of ideas about mental activities. This understanding is also called this, or thinking about thought



What are the four milestones in children's theory of mind in the order that they are typically achieved?

1. Babies are able to view people as intentional beings who can share and influence one another's mental states

2. As they approach age 2, they realize that other people differ from each other and from themselves

3. By age 3, children realize that thinking takes place inside their heads

4. Between ages three and four, they realize that both beliefs and desires determine behavior; understand concept of false beliefs


List three benefits children derive from gaining an understanding of false belief

False beliefs are ones that do not represent reality accurately but can guide people's behavior

Benefits: a powerful tool for reflecting on the thoughts and emotions of oneself and others and a good predictor of social skills
Understanding of false belief is also associated with early reading ability, probably because it helps children comprehend story narratives


Name and briefly describe four factors that contribute to preschoolers theory of mind

Language and verbal reasoning: understanding the mind requires the ability to reflect on thoughts, which is greatly aided by language

Cognitive abilities: the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses, think flexibly, and plan fosters mastery of false belief

Make-believe play: offers a rich context for thinking about the mind. As children act out rolls, they often express the thoughts and emotions of the characters they pretrade and then reason about their implications which may increase children's awareness that belief influences behavior

Social interaction: a secure attachment is related to more elaborative parent-child narratives, which often include discussions of mental states, conversations that expose preschoolers two concepts and language that help them think about their own and others' mental lives
Preschoolers with siblings tend to be more aware of false belief because they experience more family talk about others perspectives


What are two ways in which preschoolers awareness of inner cognitive activities is incomplete?

Three and four-year-olds are unaware that people continue to think while they wait, look at pictures, listen to stories, or read books, that is, when there are no obvious cues that they are thinking

Preschoolers also do not realize that when two people view the same object, there trains of thought will differ because of variations in their knowledge and other characteristics


As children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage, which spans the years 2 to 7, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in:

Representational, or symbolic, activity


Describe three core areas of functioning in which children with autism display deficits

Limited ability to engage in nonverbal behaviors required for successful social interaction, such as eye gaze, facial expressions, gestures, imitations, and give-and-take

Delayed and stereotyped language-use words to echo what others said and to get things wanted, not to exchange ideas

Engage in much less make-believe play than other children


True or false: researchers agree that autism stems from abnormal brain functioning, usually due to genetic or prenatal environmental causes

True. Beginning in the first year, children with the disorder have larger than average brains, perhaps due to massive overgrowth of synopses and lack of synaptic pruning, which accompanies normal development of cognitive, language, and communication skills


Growing evidence reveals that children with autism have a deficient theory of mind. What are several consequences of this deficit?

Long after they reach the intellectual level of an average four-year-old, they have great difficulty with false belief. Most find it hard to attribute mental states to themselves or others and they rarely use mental state words such as believe, think, know, feel, and pretend
As early as the second year, children with autism show emotional and social deficits believed to contribute to an understanding of mental life. They less often establish eye contact and joint attention, have difficulty distinguishing facial expressions, and seldom engage in social referencing or imitate an adult novel behaviors


How might impairments in executive processing affect the thinking and behavior of children with autism?

Leaves them deficient in skills involved in flexible, goal-oriented thinking, including shifting attention to address relevant aspects of the situation, inhibiting irrelevant responses, applying strategies to hold information in working memory, and generating plans


True or false: preschoolers cannot understand written language until they learn to read and write

False, preschoolers understand a great deal about written language long before they learn to read or write in conventional ways


A young child's active effort to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences is called

Emergent literacy


The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language

Phonological awareness


Why do preschoolers from low-SES families have fewer opportunities for literacy learning then there more affluent counterparts?

Age-appropriate books, for example, our scarce in their environments. On average, a low SES child is read two for a total of 25 hours during the preschool years, a higher SES child for 1000 hours. The SES gap in early literacy experiences translates into larger differences in knowledge and skills vital for reading readiness at kindergarten entry


List four ways adults can help promote emergent literacy in early childhood

Provide literacy-rich home and preschool environments: homes and preschools with abundant reading and writing materials, including a wide variety of children story books, open the door to a wealth of language and literacy experiences

Engage in interactive book reading: when adults discuss story content, ask open ended questions about story events, explain the meaning of words, and point out features of print, they promote language development, comprehension of story content, knowledge of story structure, and awareness of units of written language

Provide outings to libraries, museums, parks, zoos, and other community settings: visits to child oriented community settings enhance children's general knowledge and offer many opportunities to see how written language is used in every day life. Also provides personally meaningful topics for narrative conversation

Point out letter-sound correspondences, play rhyming and other language-sound games, and read rhyming poems and stories: helps with phonological awareness

Support children's efforts at writing, especially narrative products

Model literacy activities


At what age does the following milestone of mathematical reasoning typically develop?
Children can count rows of about five objects

2 to 3 years


At what age does the following milestone of mathematical reasoning typically develop?
Children display a beginning grasp of ordinality, or order relationships between quantities

14 to 16 months


At what age does the following milestone of mathematical reasoning typically develop?
Children can use counting to solve simple arithmetic problems

4 to 5 years


At what age does the following milestone of mathematical reasoning typically develop?
Children display a beginning grasp of cardinality, that the last number any counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set

3 1/2 to 4 years


When children understand basic arithmetic, they are able to _________, or generate approximate answers



True or false: basic arithmetic knowledge emerges in a universal sequence around the world

True. But when adults provide many occasions for accounting, comparing quantities, and talking about number concepts, children acquire these understandings sooner


What two types of tasks are commonly included on early childhood intelligence tests?

Verbal and nonverbal


Why do minorities and children from low-SES home sometimes to poorly on intelligence tests? What steps can be taken to help improve their performance?

When bombarded with questions by an unfamiliar adult, they sometimes react with anxiety. Also, such children may not define the testing situation in achievement terms and instead they may look for attention and approval from the adult and may settle for lower performance than their abilities allow

Spending time playing before testing and encouraging while the test is in progress helps preschoolers improve in performance


True or false: by age 6 or seven, scores on early childhood intelligence tests are good predictors of later I Q and academic achievement



Describe the characteristics of homes that foster young children's intellectual growth

Homes rich in educational toys and books. Parents are warm and affectionate, stimulate language and academic knowledge, and arrange interesting outings. They also make reasonable demands for socially mature behavior and these parents resolve conflicts with reason instead of physical force and punishment


Research suggests that the home environment does/does not play a major role in the generally poorer intellectual performance of low-SES children in comparison to their higher-SES peers



The number of young children enrolled in preschool or childcare has steadily decreased/increased over the past several decades, reaching nearly ____ percent in United States

Increased; 60%


A __________ is a program with planned educational experiences aimed at enhancing the development of 2 to 5-year-olds. In contrast, ______ _____ includes a variety of arrangements for supervising children of employed parents

Preschool; child care


In these type of programs, teachers provide activities from which children select, and much learning takes place to play

Child-centered programs


In these programs, teachers structure children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill

Academic programs


True or false: children in academic preschools demonstrate higher levels of achievement than those in child-centered preschools, including greater mastery of motor, academic, language, and social skills



List four features of Montessori education, and discuss the benefits associated with this type of education

Multiage classrooms, teaching materials specially designed to promote exploration and discovery, long time periods for individual and small-group learning in child-chosen activities, and equal emphasis on academic and social development

Benefits: five-year-old who had completed two years of Montessori education outperformed controls in literacy and math skills, cognitive flexibility, false belief understanding, concern with fairness in solving conflict with peers, and cooperative play with age mates


An extensive federal intervention program began in 1965 which provides children with a year or two of preschool, along with nutritional and health services with parental involvement

Project head start


What are the goal and program components of project head start

Goal: address learning problems before formal schooling begins

Program components: provide children with a year or two of preschool, along with nutritional and health services. Parental involvement is central to the Headstart philosophy, parents serve on policy Council's, contribute to program planning, work directly with children in classrooms, attend special programs on parenting and child development, and receive services directed at their own emotional, social, and vocational needs


What are two long-term benefits of preschool intervention?

Increased employment and reduced pregnancy and delinquency rates

Higher rates of high school graduation and college enrollment and lower rates of adolescent drug use and delinquency


Why do the benefits derived from Headstart typically disappear when children begin school?

Headstart children typically enter inferior public schools in poverty-stricken neighborhoods, which undermine the benefits of preschool education


Explain how parent involvement in early intervention contributes to improved school adjustment in children

The more involved parents are in Headstart, the better their child rearing practices and the more stimulating their home learning environments, factors positively related to preschoolers independence, task persistence in the classroom, and year-end academic, language, and social skills


What is jumpstart? What do evaluations indicate about preschoolers who experienced jumpstart?

A supplementary program designed to intensify the impact of preschool intervention programs by delivering extra educational enrichment to children in Headstart and other preschool classrooms serving low income children.
Two or three times a week, jumpstart corpse members such as college students and older adults, go to an early childhood center, where they read to and converse with 1 to 3 designated 3 to 5-year-olds, engage in additional individualized learning activities, and play collaborative games in small groups

Evaluations indicate that preschoolers who experience jumpstart show greater end of year gains in language, literacy, task persistence, and social skills than non-jumpstart comparison children


True or false: preschoolers exposed to poor quality childcare are lower on measures of cognitive and social skills and display more behavior problems



List four characteristics of high quality childcare

Group size: number of children in a single space,
Caregiver-child ratio, caregivers educational preparation, and caregivers personal commitment to learning about and caring for children


Describe the benefits of watching educational programs like Sesame Street

Associated with gains in early literacy and math skills and academic progress in elementary school. Watching children's programs with slow-paced action and easy to follow narratives leads to more elaborate make-believe play then doing programs that present quick, disconnected bits of information


The average 2 to 6-year-old watches TV programs and videos from ____ to ____ hours a day

One and a half to 2 1/2 hours a day


What does research reveal about the effects of heavy TV viewing on children's cognitive development?

Detracts from children school success and social experiences. Children in homes where the TV is on constantly are far less likely than their age mates to have acquired beginning reading skills


What are several benefits associated with children's use of educational computer programs?

Expand children's general knowledge and encourage diverse language and emergent literacy skills. When adults turn over control of the mouse to preschoolers, children sustained attention and interest increase and kindergartners who use computers to draw or write to produce more elaborate pictures and text me if you were writing errors, and edit their work much is older children do.


At age 2, the average child has a spoken vocabulary of _____ words. By age 6, vocabulary grows to around ___ words

200; 10,000


Children build their vocabularies by connecting new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter, a process called:

Fast mapping


How does culture contribute to fast mapping?

Young children learning Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, in which nouns are often omitted from adult sentences, well verbs are stressed, acquire verbs more readily than their English-speaking age mates. Besides increased exposure to verbs, Chinese speaking children here he greater variety of verbs denoting physical actions, which are easiest to master for example, several verbs for carry, each referring to a different way of carrying such as on ones back, in one's arms, or with one's hands


An assumption made by children in the early stages of vocabulary growth that words refer to entirely separate nonoverlapping categories.

Mutual exclusivity bias


When children figure out the meaning of a word by observing how it is used in the structure of the sentence, they are using:

Syntactic bootstrapping

Children observe how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences


Discuss two ways adult support children's vocabulary growth during early childhood

Young children take advantage of the rich social information that adults frequently provide when they introduce new words. When an adult first designates the whole object and then points to a part of it, three-year-olds realize that that is a certain part, not the whole

Adults also inform children directly about word meanings: parents commonly highlight the meaning of adjectives by using the new label with several objects, information that helps children infer that the word refers to an object property
And adults often explain which of two or more words to use


Provide two explanations for vocabulary development during early childhood

That children are innately biased to induce word meanings using certain principles, such as mutual exclusivity and syntactic bootstrapping due to the fact that they acquire vocabulary so efficiently and accurately. But critics observe that a small set of building, fix principles cannot account for the varied, flexible manner in which children master vocabulary and many words learning strategies cannot be innate because children acquiring different languages use different approaches to mastering the same meanings

Vocabulary growth is governed by the same cognitive strategies that children apply to nonlinguistic information. For instance, children drop on a coalition of cues, perceptual, social, and linguistic, which shift in importance with age.


True or false: English-speaking children show wide variability in the sequence in which they master grammatical markers

False, all English-speaking children master these grammatical markers in a regular sequence, starting with those that involve the simplest meanings and structures


When children overextend grammatical rules to words that are exceptions-for example, saying "I runned fast" instead of "I ran fast "-they are making an error called:



True or false: by the end of the preschool years, children use most of the grammatical constructions of their language competently, with the exception of passive expressions



According to one view, young children rely on semantics, or word meanings, to figure out grammatical rules, an approach called:

Semantic bootstrapping


Briefly describe two differing perspectives in the debate over how children acquire grammar

According to one view, children rely on semantics or word meanings to figure out grammatical rules, an approach called semantic bootstrapping.

Others believe that children master grammar through direct observation of the structure of language: they notice which words appear in the same positions in sentences and are combined in the same way with other words and over time, they group words into grammatical categories and use them appropriately in sentences


The practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others is known as:
Children must learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication by taking turns, staying on the same topic, stating their messages clearly, and conforming to cultural rules for social interaction



Preschoolers are skilled conversationalists. Provide an example to support this statement

In face-to-face interaction, they take turns and respond appropriately to their partners remarks


True or false: having an older sibling facilitates the acquisition of pragmatic language

True. Preschoolers closely monitor conversations between their twin or older siblings and parents, and they often try to join in. As they listen to these conversations, young language learners pick up important skills, such as use of personal pronouns. Older siblings remarks to a younger brother or sister often focus on regulating interaction and this and this is probably contributes to younger siblings conversational skills


Provide an example of a situation in which a preschooler is likely to experience a breakdown of conversational skills

When talking on the phone. Young children's conversations appear less mature in highly demanding situations in which they cannot see their listeners reactions or rely on typical conversational aids, such as gestures and objects to talk about


Restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form



Elaborating on children speech, increasing its complexity