Flashcards in Chapter #12 Ground Ladders Deck (66):
Fire service ladders have similar construction, shape, and design as those designed for private industry and general use, but they are capable of what?
Supporting heavier loads
Standard for manufacturers design of fire department ground ladders.
This requires that folding ladders hold 300lbs. Single, roof, combination, and extension ladders support 750lbs.
Standard on use, maintenance, and service testing of in service fire department ground ladders.
Label affixed to the inside of each beam of each section; a color change indicates the ladder has been exposed to significant heat and should be tested before further us.
Two other names for Pawls.
Dogs or Ladder logs
Wooden or metal pieces that prevent the fly section from being extended to far.
Most common ladder material in use in the fire service. Least expensive, Easy to repair. Can suddenly fail when exposed to heat greater then 200 F.
Metal (aluminum heat treated) Ladders
Doug fir used for the beams. Hickory for the rungs. Red oak for the pulley block, slide glides, and other misc parts. Do not conduct heat, Retain strength when exposed to heat, less bouncing when climbing, very durable. Highest cost, Can be very heavy.
Least common ladder material in the fire service. Cost less then wood more then metal. Very strong. Can suddenly crack and fail when overloaded, can burn when exposed to flame.
Ladder length on each beam with in 12" of the butt plate. Manufacture name along with month and year made. Electrical hazard warning. Ladder positioning (climbing angle and side of ladder is to be away from the building), Heat sensor label on metal and fiberglass (placed on the inside rung of each beam, below the second rung of the tip of the section, preset at 300 F, must have a expiration date)
Required NFPA 1931 ladder markings.
Name the five types of fire service ladders.
Single, Roof, Extension, Combination, Folding
Also called wall ladders or straight ladders. Fixed length. Some are of the trussed type, intended to maximize their strength while reducing weight. Lengths vary from 6 - 32', most common lengths are from 12-24'.
Single ladder with folding hooks at the tip. Lengths of 12-24'.
Single ladder with hinged rungs. Lengths from 8-16' most common is 10'. NFPA 1931 requires foot pads on the bottom to prevent slipping.
Adjustable. Potential full length is the ladders length. Range from 12 -39'.
Can be A-frame, single, or extension ladder. Lengths of 8-14', most common 10'. May be equipped with positive locking devices to hold the ladder in place.
Standard For Automotive Fire Apparatus.
One single (roof) ladder with roof hooks. One extension ladder. One folding Ladder. Recommendation that a 35' extension be carried where no ladder truck is in service.
Required ladders on a pumper. NFPA 1901
Must carry a minimum of 115' of ground ladders. Ex: One folding ladder, Two single (roof) ladders w/ hooks. Two extension ladders.
Required ladders on a Aerial Apparatus. NFPA 1901
Must carry a minimum of 85' of ground ladders. Types of ladders are the same as required for a pumper.
Required ladders for a Quint. NFPA 1901
Requires ground ladders to be inspected after each use and monthly.
When inspecting a ladder without a heat sensor what should be looked for?
Heavy carbon (soot) deposits or blisters paint on the ladder tips. Discoloration on fiberglass ladders.
Requires all ground ladders be service tested before being put into use, annually while in service, and after any expose to high heat or rough treatment.
Ladders should be cleaned when?
After every use.
Tools for cleaning a ladder?
Soft bristle brush and running water. Mild soap or safe solvents to get rid of tar, oil, or grease.
A ladder should always have what done when it gets wet?
Keeping something in a state of usefulness or readiness.
To restore or replace that which is damaged or worn out.
Any firefighters should be able to perform.......... on a ladder. A trained ladder technician should perform all .........
Maintenance guidelines for ground ladders.
Keep free of moisture, Do not store next to vehicle exhaust or engine heat, Do not store exposed to weather, Do not paint except for the top and bottom 18" for identification. or visibility.
Wear a full body harness and safety line when training. Keep 10' away from electric lines. Secure the tip and anchor the base . One firefighter every 10' or one per ladder section. Secure the foot of unattended ladders to a stationary object using ropes.
Ladder Safety Guildines
Residential story averages 10' high, w/ 3' from floor to window sill. Commercial story averages 12' high w/ 4' from floor to windowsill.
Ladder length placement estimations.
Building walls or parapets the extend more then how many feet above the rood may require the use of a additional ladder.
NFPA 1931 requires single and roof ladders have a designated length equal to the measured length. a extension ladders measured length can be up to how many inches less then the designated length?
For lengths of 35' or less, reach is approx 1' less then what?
For lengths above 35' , reach is approx 2' less then what?
T or F Lift with your knees bent, back straight, lifting with legs, NOT your back or arms?
Command for lifting is given by who?
Firefighter who can see the other team members.
Where are ground ladders typically carried on a pumper?
Horizontal or Vertically on the right side or rear of the pumper. Also may be in a rack on top right side.
Where are ground ladders typically carried on a aerial or quint?
Vertically on the right or left side, or horizontally in the bed.
Where are ladders typically carried on specialized apparatus like a water tender or ARFF truck?
Vertically on the outside.
Carry that one firefighter can use to carry single, roof, and 24' extension ladder. Ladder beam is rested on the shoulder with a arm through two rungs grasping the lower opposite beam.
One firefighter low shoulder carry
Hooks on roof ladders should not be open until when?
You are ready to ascend to the roof.
Most commonly used ladder carry for 24, 28, and 35' extension ladders.
Two firefighter low shoulder carry
Typically used on extension ladders up to 35'. Two firefighters are at each end of the ladder on the same side. A third firefighter is in the middle on the opposite side. All lift and rotate placing the ladder on there shoulder at the same time.
Three firefighter flat shoulder carry
Ladder carry that begins with it on the ground, fly up. Same positions as a three firefighter flat shoulder carry, except they start by facing the butt. Lift ladder with arm by rung and keep it at arms length.
Three firefighter flat arms length carry
Same technique as a three firefighter flat shoulder carry except a fourth firefighter is added which places a firefighter at each corner of the ladder.
Four fire fighter flat shoulder carry
Best for lightweight ladders. Fire fighters are placed on the bed side of the ladder, carrying it at arms length.
Two fire fighter arms length on edge carry
Can be carry butt or tip first. While ascending to the roof carry the roof ladder at 3-4 rungs from the tip on your shoulder.
Roof ladder carry
Usually, the firefighter nearest the butt decides the ladders exact placement. When there are two firefighters at the butt the one on which side decides?
The one on the right side
If a ladder is placed to far from a building it does what?
Reduces load carrying capacity. Higher tendency to slip.
To determine the distance the butt should be away from the building, take the total working length and divide it by what?
What 4 benefits does a 75 degree angle provide?
Good stability. Less stress on the ladder. Optimum climbing angle. Easiest climbing position.
More then two firefighters should be used to raise ladders that are what length?
35' or greater.
Pivot a ladder on what beam?
The one closet to the structure.
One firefighter can safely shift up a ladder up to what length?
Name two ways a ladder can be secured.
Tying in and heeling
When should a ladder be secured?
Any time firefighters are working on them.
While climbing a ladder your arms and hands should not reach where?
Above your head.
Whenever possible tools and hoses should be raised by means of what?
Hoisting with a rope.
What two methods safely secured a firefighter to a ladder so that they can safely work with both hands?
Ladder belt or leg lock.
Standard on Life Safety rope and equipment for emergency services.
According to NFPA 1983 this is considered a positioning devices and not a harness.
What is the minimum amount of firefighter needed to bring victims down a ladder?