Flashcards in Chapter # 6 PPE Deck (111):
Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program.
Standard on open circuit self contained breathing apparatus for emergency services. (SCBA)
Standard on personal alert safety system. (PASS)
Standard on protective ensemble for structural fire fighting and proximity fire fighting.
NFPA 1971 requires that all PPE components include a permanent label that shows what?
Manufactures name, identification, or designation. Manufactures address. Country of manufacture. Manufactures identification, lot, or serial number. Month and year of manufacture. Model name, number, or design. Size or size range. Principle material of construction. Footwear size and width. Cleaning precautions.
PPE components must be compatible with each other. Each component is designed to protect you from a specific..........
What three things may happen if PPE is altered?
Void warranty, Affect workers comp claims, Endanger your life.
Due to body heat being keep in while wearing PPE what health risk may a user have?
Increased resp rate, heart rate, skin temp, core temp, and physiological stress.
Prevents hot water and embers from reaching the ears and neck. Protects the head from impacts. Provides protection from the cold and heat. Can help in identifying personnel.
Type of eye protection that is intended to be used in combination with a primary type of eye protection.
Requires that goggles or other appropriate eye protection be worn when participating in operations where protection from flying particles and chemical splashes is necessary.
Safety glasses and goggles protect against approximately what percent of eye injuries?
What must meet the ANSI Standard Z87.1, Occupational and educational personal eye and face protection devices.
Prescription safety glasses.
Fabric covering that protects the ears, neck, and face from exposure to heat, embers, and debris.
What three components does NFPA 1971 require all protective coats used for structural firefighting be made with?
Outer shell, Moisture barrier, Thermal barrier
The three barriers in a protective coat protect from heat transfer from the fire to your body. What else do they provide limited protection to you from?
direct flame contact, hot water, steam, cold temps, other environmental hazards.
List 5 design features of a protective structural firefighting coat that is required by NFPA 1971.
Retroreflective trim, Wristlets, Collars, Closure system (fasteners that secure the front of the coat), Drag Rescue Device (DRD).
Where are protective structural firefighting coats typically reinforced?
High compression areas such as the shoulders and areas prone to wear, like the elbows.
Protect hands and wrist from heat, steam, or cold penetration, and resist cuts, punctures, and liquid absorption.
Properly worn, the gloves cover the wristlets of the protective coat to form a ..........
Protect the foot, ankle, and lower leg from punctures, crushing wounds, hot water or other contaminated liquids, burns from embers and debris.
Boots have a ......... inner sole and a ........ or reinforced toecap and must be high enough to protect the lower leg.
Three barriers required in a structural fire fighting boot.
Thermal, Physical, and moisture
Hearing protection is not required by NFPA 1971 but are required by.......
Hearing protection is required when a max of how many decibels is reach? When else is it required?
90 decibels. operation of power tools, generators, apparatus pump, and when testing a PASS device.
Name two ways a PASS device can be activated.
Motionless fire fighter for 30 seconds. Manually by pressing activation button. Some models also allow it to be activated above a preset temp.
A pass device must be at least 95 decibels and must run continual for at least........
Most PASS devices have three settings. What are they?
Off, Alarm, Sensing
Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire Fighting.
Because steel toes in ordinary safety boats absorb and retain heat, they are not recommended for use in.......
A fire resistant aluminized fabric cover that protects firefighters from convected and radiant heat. Required by NFPA 1500. Design must meet USDA forest service spec 5100-600.
What was approved in 2011 for use in wild land firefighting to provided resp protection?
APR and PAPR
The best protection on a roadway incident is to......
be visible to other motorist and work behind a barrier formed by the apparatus.
Should safety vest be worn over turn outs if not performing fire suppression or hazardous materials operations while on roadway incidents?
Standard on protective clothing for emergency medical operations.
Head protection that is designed to provide impact, penetration, and electrical insulation protection. Must meet ANSI design requirements for type 1 hard hats.
Standard on protective ensembles for technical rescue incidents.
Must protect wearer from physical, thermal, and liquid hazards, as well as infectious diseases.
Tech rescue clothing
CBRN stands for?
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear.
Standard on protective ensembles for first responders to CBRN terrorism incidents.
Similar to structural PPE, includes a aluminized outershell on the coat, trousers, gloves, and helmet shroud.
Station/work uniforms serve what two purposes?
Identify the wearer as a member of a organization, provide a layer of protection against direct flame contact.
Standard on station/work uniforms for emergency services.
NFPA 1975 covers trousers, shirts, jackets, and coveralls. But does not cover what garment?
Underwear. 100 percent cotton is recommended.
Are some station/work uniforms also certified as wild land uniforms?
Yes, they will be marked indicating if they are.
Standard on selection, care, and maintenance of protective ensembles for structural fire fighting and proximity fire fighting.
Will hydrocarbon contamination reduce the fire resistance of your PPE?
Can contaminants reduce the effectiveness of your retroreflective trim?
When should PPE be inspected?
beginning of shift, after each use, after washing, repair, decon, and on a periodic basis. (weekly or monthly).
A annual inspection should be made by a member of the dept.
What four types of cleaning for PPE is defined by NFPA 1851?
Routine, Advanced, Specialized, Contract
What is routine cleaning and what does it include?
Do not remove from service. Brush off loose debris with soft broom or brush. Gentle spray of water to rinse off debris and soil.
What is advanced cleaning?
Should be done by Personal trained in advanced cleaning. Wash in dedicated washing machine.
What is specialized cleaning?
Required when clothing is contaminated by hazardous materials or body fluids that cannot be removed by routine or advanced cleaning. May be performed by trained personnel or outside contractor.
What is contract cleaning?
Specialized cleaning performed by the manufacturer, its rep, or a certified vendor.
Can damaged PPE marked "training" be used in live fire exercises?
The overlap between a coat and trouser should be a minimum of ....... when you bend at a 90 degree angle.
Temp of skin to get a 1st degree burn.........., 2nd degree........, 3rd degree............?
1st= 118 F 2nd = 131 F 3rd= 152 F
Name five common respiratory hazards.
O2 deficiency, Elevated Temps, Particulate contaminants, Gases and Vapors, Airborne pathogens.
What is the most common cause of O2 deficient atmospheres?
At what 02 percent is needed to sustain a flame or human life?
Particulates bigger then 1 micrometer are filtered by the nasal membranes. Those particulates that are smaller then that can often be found in what four sources?
Vehicle emission exhaust, Chemical reactions, Heated metal or metal compounds, Combustion.
APR's and PAPR's only protect against?
Gases exist at........................., while vapors result from ....................changes that affect a solid or liquid.
standard temp and pressure, temp and pressure.
Name 10 common fire gases and vapors.
Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Cyanide, Hydrogen Chloride, Hydrogen Sulfide, Nitrous Gas, Phosgene, Sulfur Dioxide, Ammonia, Formaldehyde.
CO and HCN are responsible for the most fire related deaths.
Name three routes that gases and vapors can enter the body.
inhaled, ingested, absorbed
CO binds with hemoglobin ...........times more effectively than O2.
HCN is made from the incomplete combustion of products containing ..... and ...... Name four examples.
Also released during off gassing of a heated product.
nitrogen, carbon. Natural fibers, Resins, Synthetic polymers, Synthetic rubber.
HCN is .......times more toxic than CO. It kills the red blood cells.
Disease causing microorganism (virus, bacteria, fungi) that are suspended in the air.
N95,N99, and N100 designations indicate what?
The percentage of airborne particles that the mask removes.
Name the two main categories of respiratory protection equipment.
Atmosphere supplying respirators (ASR's). Air Purifying respirators (APR's).
Name two types of ASR's.
SCBA or supplied air respirators (SAR's)
When would a SAR be used.
When work in the hazardous area will take a long time and there is no chance of fire to damage the hose.
Name two types of SCBA's.
Open circuit (use compressed air, vent to outside). Closed Circuit (use compressed O2, exhaled air stays in the system).
Name the four components of a SCBA
Backplate and harness assembly, Air cylinder assembly, Regulator assembly, Facepiece assembly.
The regulator reduces the high pressure of the cylinder air to slightly above..........
NFPA 1981 requires all face pieces be equipped with what ?
Name two types of fit test that are acceptable.
Qualitative (QLFT) can the wearer sense the test agent?. Quantitative (QNFT) machines measure the leakage.
NFPA 1500 prohibits what two things that may break the facepiece seal?
Facial hair, glasses if the frames pass through the sides.
Pressure readings are most accurate at the......
upper range of the gauge.
Low air alarms must have 2 warnings. Typically these include what?
A audible alarm and a flashing light or vibration.
What does N, R, and P stand for in APR filters?
N= not resistant to oil. R= resistant to oil. P= used when oil or non oil lubricants are present.
APR's have a visual indicator to show that they are?
saturated and need to be changed.
List six wearer limitations of respiratory protection.
Lack of physical condition, Lack of agility, Inadequate pulmonary capacity, Weakened cardiovascular ability, Psychological limitations, Unique facial features.
List six equipment limitations of respiratory protection.
Limited visibility, Decreased ability to communicate, Decreased endurance (typical weight of SCBA is 25-35 pounds), Decreased mobility, Poor condition of apparatus, Low air cylinder pressure.
If a SCBA is stored in the seat it must be done in a way that the firefighter does not have to......
remove their seat belt.
NFPA 1852 recommends no less then what percent of cylinder capacity?
NFPA 1901 standard for automotive fire apparatus requires that seat mounted SCBA's be held in place by what?
A mechanical latching device.
Name a disadvantage of side or rear mounted SCBA's.
exposed to weather and other physical hazards.
List the procedure for tightening face piece straps.
pull opposing straps at the same time towards to rear. Lower straps first. Temple straps next. Top straps last.
Inspections of SCBA's should not exceed...... Annual inspections and repairs should be performed by?
one week. Qualified technician.
When inspecting a SCBA hose you should look for?
abrasions, bubbling, cuts, cracks, and heat and chemical induced damage.
When inspecting a SCBA pressure gauges you should ensure that the cylinder and remote gauges are within?
the manufacturers recommended limits.
SCBA breathing cylinders should be stamped with what two dates?
Date of manufacture and date of last hydrostatic test.
Testing and life span of a steel or aluminum cylinder.
Test every 5 years. Indefinite life until they fail.
Testing and life span of a Hoop wrapped aluminum, fully wrapped fiberglass, and fully wrapped kevlar cylinder.
Test every 3 years. Life span of 15 years.
Testing and life span of a fully wrapped carbon cylinder.
Test every 5 years. Life span of 15 years.
Name three breathing air sources that can be used to refill SCBA cylinders.
Stationary fill station, Mobile fill station, Firefighter Breathing Air Replacement Systems (FBARS). All sources must provide Type 1 grade D quality air.
Filling a unshielded cylinder while a firefighter is wearing it is prohibited except when a .............must be used.
What two things are required to ensure the quality of breathing air from a filling station.
Must be tested by a third party, Testing must be documented.
Many municipalities require that buildings taller then .......install a FBARS system.
A FBARS system consist of what components?
A FD air connection panel, containing connection fittings, control valves, and gauges, located on the exterior of the structure. An emergency sir storage system. Remote air fill panels, containing a certified rupture proof containment fill station, connections and control valves, gauges, located in protected stairwells on designated floors. Interconnected piping certified to carry breathing air through the system. Low air pressure monitoring switches and alarms.
Empty, full and damaged air cylinders should be keep where?
separate from each other.
Name six things that can effect your air supply duration.
Cylinder size and beginning pressure. Your physical conditioning. The task being performed. Your level of training. The operational environment. Your level of stress.
The IDLH atmosphere must be tested with properly calibrated instruments and be found safe before you can do what?
Remove your SCBA.
Name 5 non-emergency exit indicators.
Situation is stabilized. Change in operational strategy. Necessary to replace air cylinder. IC orders a non-emergency exit. Assignment is complete.
Name 11 Emergency exit indicators.
Low air alarm activation. SCBA failure. Withdrawal order by IC or safety. Presence of APR/PAPR breakthrough symptoms. Activation of APR/PAPR end of service life indicators. Change in concentration of respiratory hazards. Attaining or exceeding the permissible exposure limit while wearing a APR/PAPR. Change in environmental conditions. Change in O2 level. Changes in temp. Indications of new hazards.
Non emergency exit techniques are based on the ICS and the accountability requirements of what?
The only time a firefighter may work alone is when?
In confined space where two firefighters will not fit.
When you exit a IDLH area, it is important to use the .........that you used to enter, if possible.