Flashcards in Chapter 4 Building Construction Deck (208):
All trusses constructed prior to the late 1960's have a common code deficiency.
The bottom cord members have inadequate tensile strength to support roof loads allowed by the current existing code.
Common building materials include
Wood, Masonry, Metals, Reinforced Concrete, Gypsum, Lath and Plaster, Glass/Fiberglass, Plastic, Composite materials.
The most common building material in north america
Two factors that affect how wood react to fire.
Size and moisture content
Lumber of small dimensions needs to be protected by.......to increase its resistance or heat and fire.
gypsum or other insulation
Wood may be ..........to reduce the speed at which it ignites and burns.
pressure treated with fire-retardant chemicals
Wood with high moisture content
Pressure treating wood can weaken the woods strength by as much as
Roofs, decks, walls, and sub floors are all commonly made of
Includes bricks,stones, and concrete blocks
These may crack, but they usually retain most of their strength and basic structural stability.
Walls with a surface layer of attractive material laid over a base of common material.
In masonry walls this may become degraded by heat and may show signs of weakening.
Expansion of excess moisture within masonry materials due to exposure to heat of a fire, resulting in tensile forces within the material, and causing it to break apart. May cause explosive pitting or chipping of the materials surface.
Metal building materials commonly include
cast iron, steel, aluminum, other metals.
Metal building materials are used for
structural support, decorative coverings, stairs, door and window frames, duct work, pipes, and fasteners.
The effects of heat and fire on metal materials is dependent on....
Metal type, whether it is exposed or not.
Two types of Iron that can be found in North America
Wrought Iron, Cast Iron
Commonly used metal in construction in the 1900's.
With stands heat and fire but may crack if rapidly cooled.
Metal used in construction in the 1800's.
Used today as decoration on gates, fences, and railings.
Rivet or welded
Bolted or screwed
Primary material used for structural support in large modern buildings.
When heated to 1000 degrees a 50 foot steel beam can elongate how many inches?
Failure of steel members should be expected at how many degrees?
Reduces the effect of heat on steel structural members
Spray on concrete or insulation
Fire fighter can use ...............to cool steel and prevent or slow down its elongation.
A non-load bearing wall, often glass or steel, fixed to the outside of a building and serving especially as cladding.
Can create entanglement hazards for firefighters.
Drop down ceiling framing and support wires.
Will be affected by heat more rapidly then steel
Provides the compression strength of concrete and the tensile strength of steel.
Also known as drywall or sheetrock, also a inorganic product.
Gypsum provides a excellent heat and fire resistance due to
Its high water content.
Commonly used to insulate steel and structural members.
A process rather then a single material
Lath and Plaster
Generally found in buildings built prior to 1950
Lath and Plaster
May replace the lath for ceilings in some homes
Not used in structural supports. Used in sheets for doors and windows. Used in block form for non load bearing walls.
This type of glass may provide some thermal protection.
wire reinforced glass
Used as a insulating material
A mineral fiber used as insulation before the 1970's
Used in the 1970's to insulate walls, caused high levels of formaldehyde emissions.
Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI)
Most common insulation material prior to 1960's.
80% recycled newspaper
Used in the exterior walls of hybrid or natural (green) construction.
Used as siding, pipes, decorative moldings, wall coverings, mantel pieces.
Manufactured by combining two or more different materials. Results in lightweight, high structural strength, chemical resistant, corrosion resistant, and heat resistant material.
Composite material examples
Finger jointed timber, Laminated Timber, Medium density fiber board, Particle board, Synthetic wood.
Used in particle board, it can off gas causing a health risk.
The type of building construction is determined by
the materials used and how well those materials resist fire.
Building construction and Safety code.
The two most recognized building codes in the U.S.
NFPA 5000 and International Code Council International Building codes.
Factory built homes are usually regulated by the .......and not local building codes.
Department of housing and urban development.
These buildings may be exempt from local building codes.
Federal and/or state government buildings.
Every building is composed of these three building elements.
Structural frame, Floor construction, Roof construction
Also known as fire-resistive construction.
Provides the highest level of protection from fire, spread, and collapse. All structural materials are limited or noncombustible materials. Structural components must resist fire for 3-4 hours.
Also known as noncombustible or limited combustible construction.
Are composed of materials that will not add to the fire potential. Fire resistance rating is usually half of Type I. More prone to collapse because of lighter weight materials. Usually used when fire risk is low or sprinkler installed can meet the fire load of the contents.
Fire resistance rating
Rating assigned to a material or assembly after a standardized testing by an independent testing organization. identifies the amount of time a material or assembly will resist a typical fire, as measured on a standard time-temperature curve.
Also known as Ordinary Construction
Exterior walls and structural members are made of noncombustible materials and interior walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs, are completely or partially wood.
May contain voids that will contribute to rapid fire spread unless fire stops have been put in place. May also carry a larger load then for what is was designed due to renovations or occupancy type change
Also known as heavy timber/ mill construction.
Characterized by the used of lumber greater then 8 inches as structural members. Very low collapse risk. The lumbers own char provides insulating effect reducing heat from penetrating into the core of a structural member.Non combustible exterior walls. No void spaces.
Type of beam that may fail when exposed to fire because the glue holding it together may fail.
Also known as wood frame or stick frame construction.
Exterior load bearing walls are composed of wood. Veneer over wood exterior provides little to no protection. Most single family homes but also may be found in muti story structures.
Most structure built in the northern climates mandate 6 inch ..........for increased insulation.
exterior wall cavities.
Current estimates indicate that 25% of homes are ......
Manufacturer home built before 1976 have less..........then those of current construction.
May provide a additional oxygen source in manufactured homes.
open crawl space
Types of Factory built homes.
Manufactured, Modular, Panelized,Pre-cut, Hybrid.
Most common type of factory built home and cheapest.
Sections can be attached horizontal and vertically to make a home. Must conform to local building codes.
Made of panels of foam sandwiched between sheets of plywood. Normally 8 feet wide by up to 40 feet long. Self supporting so no framing members needed.
Come in varieties such as pole houses, post an beam, log homes, A-frame, and geodesic domes. Individual parts that assembled on site.
Includes elements of both the modular design and panelized design.
Hybrid modular homes
Structures may also be classified according to their intended use or.......
Structures are divided into two types of occupancies which are ?
Single use or Separated Use.
If a structure contains multiple types of use it is classified according to .....
its primary use.
These structures contain multiple occupancies or use groups, each must meet the requirements for its own specific use. Occupancies are separated by a firewall. Example= strip mall
Building components that serve a function and can contribute to or prevent fire growth.
Foundations, Floors/Ceilings, Walls, Roofs, Stairs, Doors, Windows.
Used to make up deep foundations.
piers or pilings, drilled shafts, caissons, helical piles, and earth stabilized columns.
In this type of corridor the ceiling will have the same fire restive rating as the walls.
Exit or Egress
Define the perimeter of a building and divide the contents into compartments or rooms.
Most difficult walls to penetrate to gain accesses or egress.
Exterior walls and fire walls.
Walls, usually interior, that only support their own weight.
Non-load bearing walls
Interior, non-load bearing wall that separates a space into rooms.
Fire rated wall, built of fire restive material, usually extending from the foundation through the roof. Design to limit the spread of fire in a structure.
A load bearing wall shared by two adjacent structures.
The primary function of this is to protect the structure and its contents from the effects of weather.
The shape and construction of the roof is intended to
provide drainage, support snow, resist wind, insulate the interior from the exterior.
Indications of the general arrangements within a building. Can be useful in accomplishing vertical ventilation.
Penetrations and openings in a roof.
Roof shapes commonly found in North America.
Pitched, Flat, Arched
Generally has a slight slope to the outer edge to facilitate drainage.
Portion of the exterior wall of a building that extends above the roof.
The horizontal line at the junction of the top edges of two sloping roof surfaces.
The edge of a pitched roof that overhangs an outside wall.
Constructed in the late 1800's to 1900's. Design depends on the exterior walls to support the weight of the roof.
Four types of arched roofs
Bowstring, Ribbed, Diagonal grid (Lamella), Pleated Barrel
The three main components that make up a roof.
supporting structure, deck or sheathing, roof covering
The two general types of roof supports use in residential and commercial construction.
Beam and Truss Assembly
Gusset plates are also called ...........
They only penetrate the wood .......
Gang nails, about 3/8"
Types of Truss assemblys
Parallel cord, pitched chords, arched tuss
Incline beam that supports the roof. Runs parallel to the slope of the roof, and to which the roof decking is attached.
Wood or metal plates used to connect and strengthen the connection of two or more separate components.
Horizontal structural members used to support a ceiling or floor.
Box beam and I beam trusses are also called.
Constructed of 2x3 or 2x4 or 2x6 lumber connected by gusset plates made of wood or metal.
Light Weight Wood Trusses
The portion of the roof between the roof supports and the the roof covering.
Components of a roof deck
Sheathing, roof planks or slabs, purlins.
Types of roof decking in North America.
Plywood sheathing, OSB, Wood tongue and groove, Corrugated Metal, Sprayable concrete encapsulated polystyrene, Reinforced concrete, Double tee preformed concrete.
Horizontal member between trusses that support the roof.
The two types of concrete roofs in North America
Pre-cast and poured in place
The part of a roof exposed to weather.
Concealed space between the top floor and the roof of a structure.
Weight of structure, structural members, building components, and any other feature permanently attached to the building that are constant and immobile.
This system of roof can create significant difficulty for firefighters during vertical ventilation.
This panels can be laid on a roof or embedded into it.
Can continue to produce electricity as long as the sunlight is present, even if fire damaged.
A second roof constructed over an existing roof.
Can conceal fire that may burn undetected causing truss failure, also may conceal HVAC units or other dead loads.
4 reasons you should not enter the void area of a rain roof during fire operations.
You can become trapped, You can become overcome by heat and smoke, You can fall through a weakened original roof, You can be caught in extreme fire conditions as heated gas mix with fresh air.
Permitted is submitted and construction is inspected.
Permitted structural modifications.
Unapproved and hazardous modifications.
Items within a building that are movable but are not included as a permanent part of the structure; or force placed upon a structure by the addition of people, object, or weather.
Stairs that are built to resist the spread of fire and smoke.
Protected or Enclosed Stairs.
Stairs that are not required to be part of the means of egress system and typically connect no more than two levels are called?
Access or Convenience Stairs
These are no longer allowed as a required means of egress from a normal occupied space.
Fire escapes, Escalators, and Fixed Ladders
Protected stairs typically have a ..........hour fire rating.
Enclosed exterior stairs must conform to the same standards as those required for......
Fire escapes are attached to the outside of a building. The ......... in which they are anchored may not be adequate for the expected load.
Stair enclosures using either active or passive smoke control may be defined as....
Doors may be classified according to how they....
Five types of doors
Swinging, Sliding, Folding, Vertical (overhead), Revolving
A door that rotates around a vertical axis by means of hinges attached to the side jam.
A door suspended from a overhead track with nylon or steel rollers.
Three types of sliding doors.
Surface sliding, Pocket sliding, Bypass Sliding
Sliding doors are never allowed as part of a ............. because they slow people down.
means of egress
A door that is hung from a overhead track and incorporates rollers or glides similar to a sliding door.
May be bifolding or mutifolding.
A door that opens in a ........ plane and is also known as a overhead door.
A vertical door usually incorporates some type of ..........to help overcome the weight of the door.
Counterbalance. (weights or a spring).
A door constructed with three or four sections or wings designed to rotate in a circular pattern. Used to minimize the flow of air into and out of a building.
Many revolving doors allow the wings to open into a book fold position when pressure is applied to....
The wings in opposite directions
2 metal types used most often in door construction.
Aluminum and carbon steel.
A door that consist of vertical and horizontal members that frame a rectangular area. Panels of wood, glass, or louvers are placed within the rectangular area.
Wood Panel Door
Also called a slab door.
Consist of a interior core made of laminated blocks of wood, particle board, or mineral composite. The core is covered with two or three layers of thin material. For exterior applications they may be covered in metal.
Solid core door
Consist of spacers between the face panel to provide lateral support. Spacers may be honeycomb of wood, plastic, or fiber board.
Hollow core door
Doors that can be either framed or frame less. Typically found in office and mercantile businesses.
Glass doors are required to be built of .............to resist breaking.
A metal door may contain............... inside its interior.
sound deading material, hard board in a honeycomb pattern, styrofoam.
A door that protects openings in fire rated walls.
To qualify as a fire rated door, the entire assembly, including the door, hardware, door seal, and frame must pass a test by a ........
Third party testing agency.
Rated fire doors are identified with a label indicating these three things.
Door type, Hourly Rating, Testing Lab.
A door that is typically constructed of interlocking steel slats, releasing device, governors, counterbalance, and wall guides. May be activated by a fusible link.
Rolling steel fire door
Often found in old industrial buildings, usually held open by a fusible link, slide along a track either by gravity or a counterweight.
Horizontal sliding fire door
Fire doors made with terneplate (a metal of tin and lead) are usually called.
A fire door that is usually used in stairwells enclosures or corridors that require a fire door.
Swinging fire door
A fusible link depends on heat to activate therefore it may be slower then other devices that activate based on....
smoke or the rate of temp rise
Consist of a frame, one or more sashes, and all necessary hardware.
Refers to a framed unit that may be included within the window frame, it may be fixed or movable.
Composed of a sill, side jamb, and head jam.
2 broad classifications of windows.
Fixed (nonoperable) and Movable (operable)
A window that consist of a frame ad a glazed stationary sash. Also called display window, picture widow, and deadlights.
Eight types of movable windows.
Double hung, Single hung, Casement, Horizontal sliding, Awning, Jalousie, Projecting, Pivoting.
Consist of two sashes that move past each other in a vertical plane.
Double hung window
Consist of one moveable sash.
Single hung Window
Has a side hinge that usually swings outward with the operation of a crank or by pushing.
Has one or more sashes that move horizontal in a window frame.
Has one or more top hinged, outward swing sashes. Design permits it to be open during rain.
Includes man narrow overlapping pieces of glass, approx 4 inches in width. Same operation as a awning window.
Swings outward at the top or bottom and slides upward or downward in grooves. Usually operated by a push bar that holds the window in the desired place.
Has a sash that pivots horizontally or vertically about a central axis. Parts swing inward and other parts swing outward.
When interior operations begin, ..............must be removed to ensure firefighter safety and in case a rapid egress is required.
security bars and grilles on windows.
Knowing the types of roofs, roof supports and coverings will allow you to judge the ............. of a roof prior to accessing it. It will also allow you to select the right type of ......................... tactic to use based on the roof construction.
Safety, Vertical Ventalation
List seven things to look for in a building when doing a size up.
Age of building, Construction material, Roof type, Renovations or modifications, Dead loads, Number of stories, Windows.
Two primary types of dangerous conditions that are posed by a building.
Conditions that contribute to the spread and intensity of a fire. Conditions that make the building susceptible to collapse.
The maximum heat that can be produce if all the combustible materials, both contents and building materials, in a given area burn.
The presence of large amounts of combustible materials in a area of a building.
Heavy Fuel Load
The arrangements of materials in a building directly affects..............
fire development and severity.
Engineered steel and wooden trusses can fail in a fire in .......
Metal gussets in wooden trusses can warp and fail unless they are
In bowstring truss construction the compression forces within the top cord act to force the load bearing walls....
outward and downward.
All trusses constructed prior to the late 1960's have a common code deficiency.
The bottom cord members may have inadequate tensile strength to support the roof loads.
Two factors that increase the risk of a fire in building that is being constructed, demolished, or renovated.
Additional fuels loads and ignitions sources.
Factors to consider when determining potential collapse.
Construction Type, Length of time fire burns, Stage of fire, Contents, Amount of water used for extinguishment.
Church steeples, water tanks, chimneys, and false facades that extend above the structure must be view as potential.........even if the structure is not.
These can occur well after the fire has been extinguished.
Both steel bar joist support and wood joist supports are subject to
very rapid collapse.
When checking the ceiling of a potential building fire, you should check the ceiling at what points.
When you enter and then every 20'.
The contents of a building can add to collapse potential in three ways.
Generating higher temps due to combustion, Added dead weight, Water retention adding weight.
Many contents of a structure are visible during preincident surveys. However, ..........and...........are not.
Concealed spaces and attics
A gallon of water adds .........lbs to a structure. 250 gallons of water adds approx........of weight to a structure.
8.33, 1 ton
Water may cause floors to ........
pancake down or push walls out.
3 steps to take when a collapse is imminent.
1. Inform command and all others in the building. 2. Establish collapse zones, only enter to cautiously set up un-maned master streams. 3. PAR.
Collapse zone considerations with Type I.
Take into account wind direction to avoid blowing glass. Collapse will be localized.
Collapse zone considerations with Type II
Noncombustible supports will expand when heated and retract when cooled. Out/In movement placed on building.
Collapse zone considerations with Type III
Need at least 1 1/2 times the building height. Masonry walls may collapse in pieces or stay in one piece. May cause the collapse or damage of nearby buildings.
Collapse zone considerations with Type IV
Least likely collapse. Consider collapse zone if the structure has had repeated fires over time.
Collapse zone considerations with Type V.
Type of collapse depends on construction type. Platform frame = inward collapse. Balloon frame = outward collapse. Brick and masonry veneer = curtain collapse.
Lightweight trusses will fail with in 5 minutes when exposed to direct heat.
Establish a collapse zone when
Indications that the structure has been weaken by prolong exposure to heat or fire. Defensive strategy. Interior operations can not be justified.
The size of the collapse zone should take these three things into consideration.
Type of building construction. Other exposures. Safest location for apparatus and personnel.