Chapter 13/14 Flashcards
What are your 4 cerebral lobes?
Some functions of parietal lobe?
Movement, spatial orientation, recognition, perception
Some functions of the frontal lobe?
Reasoning, problem solving, speech function, emotions, movement
Some functions of the occipital lobes?
Some functions of the temporal lobe?
Perception and recognizing speech and faces, memories, speaking ability
What is Wernicke’s area?
Where spoken language is understood
What is Broca’s area?
Where speech production takes place
What is the insular cortex?
Deals with pain, bodily/self awareness, anxieties
What are the halves of the cerebrum connected by?
Corpus callosum and anterior commissure
What is the basal nuclei?
Subcoritcal grey matter
What is the basal nuclei responsible for?
Helping coordinate voluntary movements
What are the major components of the basal nuclei?
- Globus pallidus
What is the basal ganglia related to?
What is found in the basal ganglia?
inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA
What are the disorders of the basal nuclei-hyperkinesias & dyskinesias
What is hyperkinesia?
A very rapid spasmodic motion
What is dyskinesia?
Abnormal or painful movement
What is the thalamus?
- Filters sensory information before it reaches cerebral cortex, conducts motor information
- Alertness, sleep
What sits on top of the brain stem & is the largest part of the diencephalon?
What does the hypothalamus control?
Body temp, hunger, thrist, rage, agression, sex drive
Which systems is the hypothalamus a part of?
Endocrine & limbic
What includes the mammillary bodies?
Part of the hypothalamus/limbic system
What is the epithalamus?
Includes pineal gland (secretes melatonin)
What is the limbic system?
- Consist of fear, anger, sexual motivation, & feelings of pleasure
- 2 large structures: amygdala & hippocampus
What does the limbic system include?
Fornix, cingulate gyrus, the hypothalamus, & part of the olfactory cortex
What are the 5 parts of the diencephalon?
- Thalamus (80%)
- Sub-thalamus (pre-tectum)
What is the amygdaloid body?
Almond shaped structure, involved in memories, emotional responses, hormonal secretions
What is the hippocampus?
Memory indexer (long term storage and memory retrieval)
What is the reticular activating system?
- Diffuse network of neurons throughout the midbrain and brain stem that are involved in sleep and wakefulness
What is the midbrain (mesencephalon)?
- Top of the brain stem (smallest)
- Relay station for auditory and visual information
What does tectum mean?
What does tegmentum mean?
What does the tectum include?
- Corpora quadregemina (bumps)
- Superior colliculli (visual)
- Inferior colliculi (auditory)
What does the cerebellum include?
- Arbor vitae
- Balance/ postural reflexes
- Sequential, repeated movements
What is pons?
- Horseshoe shaped structure
- Relay station for motor and sensory
What connects the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum and medulla oblongata?
What is the medulla oblongata?
Controls autonomic functions (breathing, digestion, heart & blood vessel function, swallowing and sneezing)
What are the spinal cord functions?
- Conduction or sensory input and motor commands
- Neural integration-neural pools
- Locomotion- central pattern generators
What are spinal nerves?
- Ventral and dorsal roots
- Dorsal root ganglion
- Are mixed
What is a ganglia?
A group of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
What is a spinal tract?
- Bundles of axons
What happens in ascending tracts?
1st order (from receptor to brain stem or cord)
2nd order (continues to thalamus, which acts as a gateway)
3rd order (carries the signals to the sensory part of the cerebral cortex)
What happens in descending tracts?
Carries motor signals downward
What is the upper motor neuron?
Carry information to lower motor neurons
What is a lower motor neuron?
A nerve cell that goes from the spinal cord to a muscle. The cell body of a lower motor neuron is in the spinal cord and its termination is in a skeletal muscle. The loss of lower motor neurons leads to weakness, twitching of muscle
What is a word for twitching of muscle?
What is a word for loss of muscle mass?
What are examples of upper motor neuron damage?
Hyperreflexia & spasticity
What are examples of damage to lower motor neurons?
Hyporeflexia, flaccidity, atrophy
What is a reflex?
Pre-programmed motion or reaction thats designed to prevent bodily harm or death
What are the steps in reflexes?
- Activation of a receptor
- Activation of a sensory neuron
- Information processing by an interneuron
- Activation of a motor neuron
- Response by a peripheral effector
Rule of thumb for synapses?
The more synapse you have, the slower the reaction is going to be but the less predictable it’s going to be
Blood supply to the brain
Aortic arch>common carotids>internal & external carotids>internal carotid branches out to form the Circle of Willis
What is the proper term for a stroke?
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
What does ischemia mean?
Loss of blood flow
Name and define two types of strokes
Ischemic - blood clot in a artery of the brain
Hemorrhagic - internal brain bleed
What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
- Dura mater
- Pia mater
What is a dura mater?
Attaches to inside of skull-has a meningeal layer and endosteal layer with venous sinuses between
What is a arachnoid?
Vascular;villi; subarachnoid space
What is a pia mater?
Held to the brain surface by astrocytes
What are the layers of the spinal cord?
- Epidural space
- Dura mater
- Subdural space
- Arachnoid layer
- Sub-arachnoid space
- Pia mater
- Spinal cord
What does the cerebrospinal fluid (CF) fill?
Fill the subarachnoid space, circulates through the central canal