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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (46):
1

Group

two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals

2

Formal groups

work groups that are defined by the organization's structure
have designated work assignments and specific tasks

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Informal groups

social groups which naturally occur in the workplace
form around friendships and common interests

4

Stages of Group Development

Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning

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Forming stage phase 1

joining the group

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Forming stage phase 2

defining the group's purpose, structure, and leadership

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Storming stage

intragroup conflict
conflict over who will control and what the group needs to do

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Norming stage

close relationships develop

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Performing stage

group works on the group's task
last stage of permanent work groups

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Adjourning

final stage for temporary groups
disbanding

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organization’s strategy, authority relationships, formal rules and regulations, availability of resources, employee selection criteria, performance management system and culture, and general physical layout of the group’s work space

External Conditions Imposed on the Group

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knowledge, abilities, skills, and personality traits, interpersonal skills, collaborative problem solving, and communication of each individual in a group

Group Member Resources

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Role

behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit

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Task Accomplishment Role

focusing on getting work done

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Group Member Satisfaction Role

giving members the opportunity to offer ideas and satisfaction with their experience

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Norms

standards or expectations accepted and shared by a group's members

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Conformity

individuals are pressured to conform

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Groupthink

when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinion with that of others

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Work Group Performance and Satisfaction

External conditions, Group Member resources, Group Structure, Group Processes, Group tasks

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Group Structure

Role, Norms, Conformity, Status, Group Size, Group Cohesiveness, Group Process

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Status

prestige grading, position within a group

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Optimal group size

5 - 7

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Social loafing

tendency to expend less effort when working collectively

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Group cohesiveness

degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group's goals

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communication, decision making, conflict management affect group performance/satisfaction

Group Process

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Nominal Group Technique

Group decision making technique in which members are presented with a problem and each member independently writes down his ideas on the problem

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Group Process

Group Decision Making, Conflict Management

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Conflict

perceived incompatible differences

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Conflict Views

Traditional, Human Relations View, Interactionist view

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the view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided.

Traditional

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the view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group

Human Relations

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the view that some conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively.

Interactionist view

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Functional conflict

conflicts that support goals and improve group performance

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Dysfunctional

conflicts that prevent a group from achieving goals

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Task conflict

over content and goals

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Relationship conflict

based on interpersonal relationships

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process conflict

how work gets done

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how much conflict is optimal for task, relationship, process conflict?

Relationship - minimal to none; often dysfunctional
Task conflict - low to moderate
Process- low

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Group Tasks

complexity and interdependence of tasks influence group's effectiveness

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Conflict Management Techniques

Forcing, Compromising, Avoiding, Accommodating, Collaborating

41

Work Team

groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal

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Team from the same department or functional area involved in improving work activities or solving problems

Problem-solving team

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Type of work team that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment

Self-managed work team

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a work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties.

Cross-functional

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a type of work team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal

Virtual team

46

Effective work teams

Clear goals, relevant skills, mutual trust, unified commitment, good communication, negotiating skills, appropriate leadership, internal and external support