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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (64):
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Organizational Behavior

study of actions of people at work

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three major areas of OB

Individual, group behavior, organizational aspects

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Area which looks at attitudes, personality, perception, learning, motivation (psychologists)

individual behavior

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Area which includes norms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflict (sociologists)

group behavior

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Area which includes structure, culture, and HR policies and practices

organizational aspects

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Goals of organizational behavior

explain, predict, influence behavior

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Employee productivity

performance measure of efficiency and effectiveness

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failure to show up for work

absenteeism

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turnover

voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization

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Organizational Citizenship Behavior

discretionary behavior that's not an employee's formal job requirements but promotes effective functioning of an organization

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Job Satisfaction

general attitude toward a job

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Workplace misbehavior

intentional behavior that is potentially harmful to the organization (deviance, aggression, antisocial behavior, violence)

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Attitudes

evaluative statements concerning objects, people or events

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components of attitudes

cognition, affect, behavior

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cognitive component

beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information

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affective component

emotional or feeling part

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behavioral component

intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

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Job Involvement

degree to which an employee identifies with his job

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Organizational Commitment

degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization

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Perceived Organizational Support

belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being

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Employee engagement

being connected, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about one's job

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Cognitive Dissonance

incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes and behaviors

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Attitude surveys

surveys that elicit responses from employees through questions about how they feel about their jobs

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Personality

unique combination of emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns that affect how a person reqcts to situations and interacts with others

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MBTI

Myers Briggs Type Indicator

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Big Five Model

personality trait model which includes Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional staibility, Openness to experience

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Extraversion

degree to which someone is sociable, talkative, comfortable in relationships with others

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Agreeableness

degree to which someone is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting

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Conscientiousness

degree to which someone is reliable, responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented

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Emotional staibility

degree to which someone is calm, enthusiastic, and secure or tense, nervous, depressed

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Openness to experience

degree to which someone has a wide range of interests and is imaginative

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Locus of control

extent to which people believe they control their own fate
internal - people believe they control their own destiny
external - people believe their lives are controlled by outside forces

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Machiavellianism

degree to which a person is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believe that ends justify the means

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Self-Esteem

degree to which a person likes or dislikes himself

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Self-Monitoring

ability to adjust behavior to external factors

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Risk-taking

willingness to take chances

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Proactive Personality

people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until change occurs

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Resilience

individual's ability to overcome challenges and turn them into opportunities

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Emotions

intense feelings that are directed at someone or something

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Six universal emotions

anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, happiness

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Emotional Intelligence

ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information

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Five dimensions of EI

Self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, social skills

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John Holland

an employees satisfaction with his job as well as likelihood of leaving depends on the degree to which his personality matches the job environment

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Holland's Personality-Job Fit

Realistic - prefers physical activities
Investigative- prefers thinking activities
Social - prefers activities that involve helping others
Conventional - prefers rule-regulated activities
Enterprising- prefers verbal activities that offer opportunities to influence others
Artistic- prefers ambiguous activities

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Perception

process by which we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions

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Factors that influence perception

perceiver, target, situation

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Attribution theory

when we observe an individual's behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused

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3 factors of Attribution theory

Distinctiveness, consensus, consistency

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Fundamental Attribution Error

tendency to overestimate internal factors and underestimate external factors

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Self-serving bias

tendency to attribute our successes to internal factors

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Assumed similarity

assumption that others are like oneself

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stereotyping

judging a person on the basis of one's perception of a group to which he belongs

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Halo effect

general impression on an individual based on a single characteristic

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Learning

relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience

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Operant conditioning

behavior is a function of its consequences

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Social Learning Theory

view that we can learn both through observation and direct experience

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People learn from a model when they are attractive or seen similar

Attentional processes

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influence depends on how well the individual remembers the model's action

retentional processes

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individual can actually do the modeled activities

Motor reproduction processes

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individuals will be motivated to exhibit the behavior if positive incentives are provided

Reinforcement processes

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Shaping Behavior

process of guiding learning in graduated steps through reinforcement or lack of reinforcement

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rewarding a response by eliminating something unpleasant

negative reinforcement

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penalizing undesirable behavior

punishment

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eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior

extinction