Chapter 13 Blood Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Blood Physiology Deck (21):
1

There is an increase in action potentials  from aortic baroreceptors.  What is this message indicated?
A. Increase in blood pressure
B. Decrease in blood pressure  

A. Increase in blood pressure

2

What type neuron is involved in this communication? 
A. Somatic motor
B. Visceral sensory
C. Visceral motor
D. Somatic sensory

B. Visceral sensory

3

How does the body respond to maintain homeostasis?
A. Increase heart rate
B. Vasodilate vessels
C. Increase cardiac output
D. Increase blood volume

B. Vasodilate vessels

4

What are the functions of the blood?

Transport

  • Gases
  • Nutrients/wastes
  • Distribute hormones

Protection

  • White blood cells
  • Antibodies production
  • Platelets

Regulation

  • Regulate body temperature
  • Fluid distribution
  • Stabilize pH of body

5

What is the composition of blood?

  • Two main parts:
  • Formed elements (~45%)
    • Red/white blood cells and platlets
  • Plasma (~55%)
    • Water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes (sodium), and wastes
    • Proteins:
      • Albumin – water balance
      • Globulins – immunity
      • Fibrinogen - clotting

6

A person is suffering from an inadequate albumin in his blood (there is less protein in vessels compared to surrounding tissue).  Based on osmosis, how would you predict water movement is affected by this situation?
A.  Water will move into the vessel
B.  Water will move into surrounding tissue
C.  Water will move in both directions equally

7

What is the Kwashiorkor Condition?

  • Caused in extreme starvation or protein deficiency states
  • Hypoproteinemia
    • More protein (solute) in tissues compared to blood
  • Water moves through osmosis to where there is more solute
  • Results in edema

8

What is another name for red blood cells and what are their characheristics?

(RBC or Erythrocytes)

Humans  5 million blood cells in one microliter of blood
Produced in red bone marrow (hollow center of bones)
RBC have no organelles
How does this impace the “life” of a red blood cell?
Contain hemoglobin protein
Spleen filters dying blood cells for removal

9

What is the process of the Erythrocyte Homeostasis?

  • RBC count is maintained by a negative feedback loop
  • Hormone erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates the proliferation of RBC’s in the bone marrow
    • Produced by the liver and kidneys
  • When RBC count drops, tissues become oxygen deficient
  • Liver and kidneys cells have receptors that can sense the decrease in oxygen
  • Release EPO in this situation
  • Causes production of more RBC

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10

You are hiking in the Rockies and experience shortness in breath.  How would you predict your body will respond to maintain homeostasis?
A.  Decrease erythropoietin production
B.  Increase erythropoietin production
C.  Decrease heart rate
D.  More than one of the above

11

What does hemoglobin consist of?

Consists of four proteins, heme group, and iron molecule

  • 2 alpha proteins
  • 2 beta proteins

12

What is a heme group and what happens to it when blood cells die?

  • Heme group binds iron
    • Iron is required to transport oxygen
  • When red blood cells die, protein is recycle and heme is removed as waste
    • Bilirubin  green stuff in bile

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13

What is an example of a Hemoglobin Disorder?

  • Sickle cell anemia
    • Mutated form of hemoglobin
    • Reduces oxygen binding
    • Cells can stick together and block small vessels
    • Mutation evolved with malaria resistance

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14

What are antigens and antibodies?

  • Blood type is determined by specific chemical groups on the surface of red blood cells called ANTIGENS
    • Antigens can be proteins or glyco-proteins
  • ANTIBODIES (agglutinins) are proteins that can recognize and bind specific antigens
    • Your body makes antibodies for foreign antigens
  • Binding of antibodies and antigens cause foreign cells to clump together
    • “Agglutinate”
    • Immune system removes clumps from body
  • There are three blood antigens (A, B, D/Rh)
    • People produce antibodies for the antigens they lack

15

What is it about blood transfusions?

  • Blood types must match for transfusion otherwise an immune response will occur
    • Donor antigens must NOT cause agglutination (i.e., antigens must NOT bind antibodies present in recipient blood)
    • Agglutination due to improper transfusion can be deadly
  • Type O is the universal donor
    • Type O blood has no surface antigens
      • Can be given to any blood type (O blood does not interact with antibodies)
  • Type AB is the universal recipient
    • Type AB patients produce no antibodies
      • Can accept any blood type (any antigen)

16

What type of blood can type O receive?
A.  O only

B.  A and B only

C. AB only4

D.  A, B, AB and O

A. O only

17

What is the Rh Blood Group?

  • Rh is another antigen, in addition to A and B
    • Presence of antigen is Rh+
    • Lack of antigen is Rh-
  • Rh antibodies are only produced if an Rh- person comes into contact with Rh+ blood
    • Can occur in pregnancy or transfusion

(Picture below) How Rh blood physiology can impact fetal development…can lead to fetal anemia (low blood oxygen)

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18

A physician is determining the blood type of a patient and has the above result.  In each circle, blood is treated with the specified antibody as indicated  The control represents no agglutination (clumping).  What type of blood is safe to give this patient?

A.  A+
B.  O-
C.  AB+
D.  O+

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B. O- since it's best to give one that has no antigenns present?

19

What are platelets and what is their relationship with homeostasis?

  • Platelets are fragments of large bone marrow cells
  • Released into blood stream and circulate about 10 days
  • Have an important role in hemostasis

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20

What is homeostasis?

Cessation of bleeding
Ex. At a damaged blood vessel

21

What are the three steps of homeostasis?

  1. Vascular spasm
    • Prompt constriction of damaged vessel
  2. Platelet plug formation
    • Platelets adhere to damaged area
    • Attached platelets release chemicals to cause more platelets to adhere.
  3. Coagulation (clotting)
    • Involves the activation of protein fibrinogen to fibrin
    • Complex pathway (over 30 steps)
    • Activated fibrin adheres to the vessel walls and platelet plug
    • Traps more platelets, like a spider web
    • Brings damaged vessel together so it can heal
    • After healing the clot is dissolved 

 

 

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