Chapter 13 Nuclear Reactions Flashcards Preview

Physical Science > Chapter 13 Nuclear Reactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Nuclear Reactions Deck (19):
1

Involves changes in the nucleus of the atom

Nuclear Reactions

2

Spontaneous emission or energy from an unstable nucleus
Discovered by Becquerel

Natural Radioactivity

3

Binds protons and neutrons
Short ranged

Strong Nuclear Force

4

Maximum stability for nucleon number = 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, or 126

Nuclear Shell Mode

5

Atomic number > 83

Unstable

6

Expulsion of helium nucleus
Least penetrating: stopped by paper

Alpha emission

7

Expulsion of an electron
More penetrating: 1cm of aluminum

Beta emission

8

Emission of a high-energy photon
Most penetrating: 5cm of lead

Gamma Decay

9

Time required for 1/2 of a radioactive sample to decay
U-238 decay series

Half-Life

10

Detect ions produces by radiation

Ionization counters

11

Rely on flashes of light
Zinc Sulfide

Scintillation counters

12

DNA disruption
Free radical production

Consequences of radiation exposure

13

Difference of between masses of reactants and products

Mass Defect

14

Energy required to break a nucleus into individual protons and neutrons

Binding energy

15

Heavy nuclei splitting into light ones
Sufficient mass and concentration to produce a chain reaction

Nuclear Fission

16

Rely on controlled fission chain reactions
Contains fuel rods

Nuclear power plants

17

Less massive nuclei
Energy source for sun and other stars
Need high temperature, high density, sufficient confinement time

Nuclear Fusion

18

Incredibly hot, dense, primordial plasma cools
Continued cooling leads to hydrogen atoms

Big Bang Theory

19

Massive stars explode in Supernovae

Stellar evolution