Chapter 15 Solar System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Solar System Deck (33):
1

Defines planets, dwarf planets, and small solar system bodies

International Astronomical Union (IAU)

2

Mercury, Venus, earth, and mars
Mostly rocky materials, metallic nickel, and iron

Terrestrial Planets

3

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Mostly hydrogen, helium, and methane

Giant planets

4

No atmosphere
0.4 AU
Orbital period 3 months
Rotational period 59 days

Mercury

5

CO2 atmosphere
High temperature
0.7 AU
Exhibits phases

Venus

6

Thin atmosphere CO2 mostly
1.5 AU
Inactive volcanoes
Canyons
Numerous spar probes

Mars

7

5 AU
318 x’s earth’s mass
Mostly H and He
Great Red Spot

Jupiter

8

9.5 AU from sun
Rings of particles and more than 60 orbiting moons
Titan moon

Saturn

9

19 AU
Outermost planets
Similar structures

Uranus

10

30 AU
Outermost planet
Similar internal structures

Neptune

11

Origin of long period comets
30 AU to light year away

Oort Cloud

12

Origin of short period comets
30-100AU from sun

Kuiper belt

13

Small
“Dirty snowball”
Dusty and rocky bits.
2 tails: ionized gases and dust

Comet

14

Located in the belt between mars and Jupiter
1,000 km

Asteroids

15

Remnants of comets and asteroids

Meteoroids

16

Meteoroid encountering Earth’s atmosphere
Meteor showers: earth pasting through comet’s tail

Meteor

17

Meteoroid surviving to strike earth’s surface

Meteorite

18

Formation of heavy elements in many earlier stars
Concentration in one region of space

Stage A

19

Formation of large rotation nebula
Spin rate increase
Clumping

Stage B

20

Protonsun becomes a star
Solar ignition flare up
Larger bodies cooled

Stage C

21

Path of sun

Ecliptic

22

Dates the sun passes through each
13

Constellations

23

Circular orbits with threats at the centers epicycles

Ptolemaic System

24

Attempt of early Greek astronomers
Placed earth in the center of the orbits

Geocentric Model

25

Idea of earth revolving around the sun
Kepler’s law explains further

Heliocentric Model

26

Orbit of the planters around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus

Kepler’s First law

27

Planet closer towards the sun

Perihelion

28

Planets furthest from the sun

Aphelion

29

A line joining planet to the sun (racial line or radius vector) sweeps out equal area in equal time.
Planets move faster when they are closest and slowest when they are farthest

Kepler’s 2nd law

30

Used telescope to observe sun moon and the planets
Sun and moon are not perfect spheres.

Galileo

31

Crescent phase

Largest

32

Gibbous phase

Smallest

33

For the planets, the square of the time period P is proportional to the cube of the planets avg distance from the sun

Kepler’s 3rs law