Flashcards in Chapter 13 (Vocabulary) Deck (51):
A rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of the extremities (hand and feet) caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty.
An abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty.
The excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism.
Formerly known as dwarfism, is sometimes caused by deficient secretion of growth hormone.
There are two type of these slow-growing benign tumors of the pituitary gland. Functioning pituitary tumors - often produce hormones in large and unregulated amounts. Non-functioning pituitary tumors do not produce any significant amounts of these hormones.
pituitary adenoma, aka pituitary tumor
A condition in which an excess of prolactin causes the breasts to produce milk spontaneously.
A benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin, which can cause infertility in women and erectile dysfunction in men, and can impair vision.
Is caused by an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone ADH or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone. *see notes pg. 3/19
Caused by the overproduction of the anti-diuretic hormone ADH. This is often as a result of cancer or its treatment. High amts. of ADH keep the kidneys from excreting water, resulting in bloating and water retention that can dilute the blood, causing electrolyte imbalances, particularly hyponatremia.
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
Is a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin. This tumor can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle.
The most common cancer of the endocrine system. This cancer affects more women than men and usually occurs btw the ages 25-65 years.
Aka chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland. This inflammation often leads to hypothyroidism.
Hashimoto's disease [Memory aid > "o" in Hashimoto's and hypo]
Aka underactive thyroid, is caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion. Symptoms include fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, and a decreased metabolic rate.
Is a congenital form of hypothyroidism. If treatment is not started soon after birth, this causes arrested physical and mental development.
Aka adult hypothyroidism, is causes by an extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion. Symptoms include swelling, particularly around the eyes and cheeks, fatigue, and a subnormal temperature.
Are lumps in the thyroid that can grow large enough to cause goiter (see Graves disease). Most nodules are benign; however some are malignant or produce too much thyroxine.
Aka thyrotoxic crisis, is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism. Symptoms include fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating, disorientation, and fatigue.
Aka thyrotoxicosis, is the overproduction of thyroid hormones, which causes an imbalance of the metabolism. This causes symptoms including an increased metabolic rate, sweating, nervousness, and weight loss.
hyperthyroidism [Most common cause is Grave's disease.]
A disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone (autoimmune disorder). This results in hyperthyroidism and can also cause a goiter, exophthalmos, or both.
Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism) [Memory aid > "e" in Grave's and in hyper]
Aka thyromegaly, is an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland. This enlargement produces a swelling in the front of the neck. Usually occurs when the thyroid gland is not able produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's need, either due to Grave's disease, other medical conditions, or an iodine deficiency.
An abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit.
The overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causes the condition known as hypercalcemia. This can result from a disorder of the parathyroid gland or from a disorder elsewhere in the body, such as kidney failure.
Is characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones and teeth. This can lead to weakened bones and the formation of kidney stones.
Is caused by an insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone. This condition causes hypocalcemia, and in severe cases, it leads to tetany. Tetany is the condition of periodic, painful muscle spasms and tremors.
Characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood.
Inflammation of the thymus gland.
A benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin.
Is an inflammation of the pancreas. A leading causes is long-term alcohol abuse.
An abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood. Seen primarily in patients with diabetes mellitus. The symptoms include polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria.
>An excessive thirst.
The condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream.
Is an abnormally low concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Symptoms include nervousness and shakiness, confusion, perspiration, or feeling anxious or weak.
A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It is not related to diabetes insipidus. * see notes page 8/19
diabetes mellitus [described as Type 1 and Type 2 and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults]
An autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells. Insulin deficiency means that the pancreatic beta cells do not secrete enough insulin. Onset of type 1 diabetes is often triggered by a viral infections.
Type 1 diabetes [symptoms include polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, weight loss, blurred vision, extreme fatigue and slow healing. Treated with diet & exercise as well as carefully regulated insulin replacement therapy administered by injection or pump.
Is an insulin resistance disorder. Insulin resistance means that insulin is being produced, but the body does not use it effectively. In an attempt to compensate for this lack of response, the body secretes more insulin. *see notes page 10/19
Type 2 diabetes [With the rise of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes is increasingly common in children and young adults. Obese adults are also at high risk for this condition.
Is a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. However, this condition indicates risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
Aka Type 1.5 diabetes, is a condition in which type 1 diabetes develops in adults. It shares many of the characteristics of type 2 diabetes; however, autoimmune antibodies are present. *see notes page 10/19
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) [Latent means present, but not visible.]
A form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies. This condition usually disappears after delivery; however, many of these women have an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes in later life.
gestational diabetes mellitus
A type of diabetic emergency, which caused by very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). This condition is treated by the prompt administration of insulin.
diabetic coma, aka diabetic ketoacidosis
A type of diabetic emergency, which is caused by a very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Oral glucose, which is a sugary substance that can quickly be absorbed into the bloodstream, is consumed to rapidly raise the blood sugar levels.
Four types of diabetic complications, which most result from the damage to capillaries and other blood vessels due to long-term exposure to excessive blood sugar. *see notes page12/19
Slow wound healing & increase likelihood of wound infection.
A complication of uncontrolled diabetes, this occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina. This causes blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball and produce the damage the loss of vision.
Occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. This condition is characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure, and weight loss.
Inflammation of the adrenal glands.
An abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone.
A disorder of the adrenal glands that is caused by the excessive production of aldosterone. This disease, which is a form of primary aldosteronism, can cause weakness, cramps, and convulsions.
A rare, benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes too much release of epinephrine and norepi-nephrine, which are the hormones that regulate heart rate and blood pressure.
Aka hypercortisolism, is caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol. Cortisol has an anti-inflammatory action, and it regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body. The symptoms include a rounded red "moon" face.
Cushing's syndrome [This condition can be caused by overproduction of cortisol by the body or by prolonged use of corticosteroids. These steroid hormone medications are used to treat inflammatory diseases such as asthma, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis and to keep the body from rejecting transplanted organs or tissue.
The condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands
The condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands.