Chapter 13 - White Blood Cell Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - White Blood Cell Disorders Deck (101)
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0

What do qualitative WBC defects refer to?

Qualitative WBC defects: structure and/or function

1

Give an example of a disease with a WBC structure defect.

Structure defect: Chédiak-Higashi syndrome

2

Give two examples of WBC function defects.

Function defect: selectin deficiency, CD11a/CD18 deficiency

3

Give an example of a WBC phagocytosis defect.

Phagocytosis defect: Bruton agammaglobulinemia

4

Give two examples of WBC microcidal defect.

Microbicidal defect: MPO/NADPH oxidase deficiencies

5

What are the clinical findings in qualitative WBC defects?

Qualitative WBC defects: unusual pathogens, “cold” abscesses, frequent infections

6

What is Job syndrome?

Job syndrome: defect in chemotaxis; ↑IgE

7

What is the equation to determine the absolute count of WBC?

Absolute count = % leukocytes × total WBC count

8

What is a leukemoid reaction?

Leukemoid reaction: benign, exaggerated WBC response

9

What is leukoerythroblastosis?

Leukoerythroblastosis: immature WBCs/nucleated RBCs in peripheral blood

10

What are the causes of leukoerythroblastosis?

Causes: infiltrative disease; metastasis; granulomatous disease; leukemia
Other causes: trauma with multiple fractures; EMH

11

What is the probable diagnosis if a woman >50 years presents with leukoerythroblastosis?

Leukoerythroblastosis in woman >50 yrs: probable breast cancer metastatic to bone

12

How is neutrophilic leukocytosis defined?

Neutrophilic leukocytosis: >7500 cells/mm3

13

What are the causes of neutrophilic leukocytosis?

Causes: bacterial infection, sterile inflammation with necrosis, corticosteroids

14

Describe the pathogenesis of neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Pathogenesis: ↑production, ↓activation neutrophil adhesion molecules

15

How is neutropenia defined?

Neutropenia: <1500 cells/mm3

16

What are the causes of neutropenia?

Causes: aplastic anemia, immune destruction (SLE), septic shock
Causes: drugs (penicillin), tick-borne diseases, viral infections
Causes: bacterial infection (TB, typhoid, brucellosis); systemic fungi; ionizing radiation

17

Describe the pathogenesis of neutropenia.

Pathogenesis: ↓production, ↑destruction, ↑activation neutrophil adhesion molecules

18

How is eosinophilia defined?

Eosinophilia: >400 cells/mm3

19

What are the causes of eosinophilia?

Causes: type I HSR, invasive helminths, D. fragilis, hypocortisolism

20

What is a cause of eosinopenia?

Eosinopenia: hypercortisolism

21

Which disease should be considered if basophilia is present?

Basophilia: consider myeloproliferative disease

22

How is lymphocytosis defined?

Lymphocytosis: >5000 cells/mm3 (adult); >8000 cells/mm3 (child)

23

What are the causes of lymphocytosis?

Causes: viruses (mononucleosis, CMV), bacteria (whooping cough, TB)
Causes: drugs (phenytoin, tetracycline); Graves disease, CLL

24

What are the causes of atypical lymphocytosis?

Atypical: infection (mononucleosis, CMV, toxoplasmosis, viral hepatitis); drugs (phenytoin)

25

Describe the pathogenesis of atypical lymphocytosis.

Atypical lymphocytes: antigenically stimulated

26

What causes mononucleosis?

Mononucleosis: EBV

27

Describe the pathogenesis of mononucleosis.

B cells have CD21 receptor sites for EBV; atypical B cells
Mono: cytotoxic T cells control infected B cells; atypical lymphocytes
Mono: EBV dormant in B cells; relapses may occur

28

What are the clinical findings of mononucleosis?

Mono: fatigue; exudative tonsillitis/petechiae in posterior palate; tender hepatosplenomegaly
Mono: painful lymphadenopathy; pruritic rash with ampicillin/amoxicillin

29

What are the lab findings in mononucleosis?

Mono: atypical lymphocytes >20%
Mono heterophile antibodies: IgM antibodies directed against horse, sheep, bovine RBCs
Anti-VCA lgG/IgM: excellent test if mono screening test is negative