Chapter 3 - Inflammation and Repair Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Inflammation and Repair Deck (118)
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0

Define acute inflammation.

AI: transient and early response to injury

1

What three responses are involved in acute inflammation?

AI: chemical, vascular, cellular responses

2

Rubor, calor, and dolor are mediated by what?

Rubor, calor, tumor: histamine-mediated

3

Dolor is mediated by what two compounds?

Dolor (pain): mediated by PGE2 and bradykinin

4

What mediates vasodilation of arterioles?

Vasodilation of arterioles: histamine, nitric oxide

5

In acute inflammation, what do mast cells release?

Mast cells: release preformed histamine

6

How does histamine affect venule endothelial cells resulting in what?

Histamine: contracts venule endothelial cells; ↑venular permeability

7

Describe edema fluid.

Edema fluid: transudate (low protein and cell levels)

8

What are the primary leukocytes in acute inflammation?

Neutrophils: primary leukocytes in AI

9

How does the circulating pool and marginating pool of neutrophils differ between Caucasians and African Americans?

Neutrophils: in white people, 50% circulating and 50% marginating; in black people, marginating pool > circulating pool

10

What alters the distribution of neutrophils?

Neutrophil distribution: altered by activating/inactivating adhesion molecules

11

What does margination of neutrophils mean?

Margination: neutrophils pushed to periphery

12

What are selectins?

Selectins: carbohydrate-binding adhesion molecules

13

Where are L-selectin ligands located?

L-selectin: selectin ligand on leukocytes

14

Where are E-selectin molecules located?

E-selectin: selectin molecule on endothelial cells

15

From where is P-selectin derived?

P-selectin: derived from Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells

16

What two cytokines activate selectins?

Selectins activated by IL-1 and TNF

17

Describe the process of selectin adhesion.

Selectin adhesion: “rolling” (bind−detach) of neutrophils

18

What do β2-Integrins do and what are they activated by?

β2-Integrins: firm adhesion of neutrophils; activated by C5a/LTB4

19

How catecholamines and corticosteroids affect the firm adhesion of neutrophils?

Catecholamines and corticosteroids inactivate neutrophil β2-integrins: produces neutrophilic leukocytosis

20

How do endotoxins affect β2-integrins producing what?

Endotoxins activate neutrophil β2-integrins: produces neutropenia

21

What are ICAM/VCAM and what are they activated by?

ICAM/VCAM: endothelial cell integrin adhesion molecules (ligands); activated by IL-1/TNF

22

Name one clinical finding of leukocyte adhesion deficiency due to selectin or CD11a/CD18 deficiency.

Delayed separation of umbilical cord: LAD due to selectin or CD11a/CD18 deficiency

23

Describe transmigration (diapedesis).

Transmigration (diapedesis): movement of neutrophils from venules into interstitial space

24

What is an exudate?

Exudate: protein- and cell-rich fluid (pus)

25

Name two functions of exudate.

Exudate: dilutes bacterial toxins; provides opsonins

26

What is chemotaxis?

Chemotaxis: directed migration of neutrophils

27

Name four chemotaxis mediators.

Chemotaxis mediators: C5a, LTB4, bacterial products, IL-8

28

Name two opsonins. What do they do?

Opsonins: IgG and C3b; enhance neutrophil ability to ingest bacteria
Opsonins: IgG and C3b; enhance neutrophil recognition and attachment of bacteria

29

In Bruton agammaglobulinemia, there is a defect in what?

Bruton agammaglobulinemia: opsonization defect (lack of IgG)