Chapter 14 - Chemical Compounds Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Chemical Compounds Deck (42)
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1

When acids dissolve in water, molecules break apart from the acid to form ______ , which react with the water to form ______

Hydrogen ions (H+)
Hydronium Ions(H3O+)

2

Acids increase the concentration of ______ when dissolved in water

Hydronium (H3O+)

3

When a base dissolves in water, molecules break apart to form _____

Hydroxide ions (HO-)

4

Bases increase the concentration of ______ when dissolved in water

Hydroxide ions (OH-)

5

Acids have a ______ taste.

Sour

6

Acids have a pH ______

Below 7

7

Acids turn ______ litmus paper ______

Blue
Red

8

Acids corrode with ______ to form ______

Metals
Hydrogen gas

9

Name uses of acids

Areas of Industry and homes, including:
1. Keeps swimming pools free of algae
2. Stomach acids
3. Orange juice and lemon juice
4. Vinegar

10

Acids (can, cannot) conduct electric current when dissolved in water. Why or why not?

Can; hydronium ions are formed when an acid dissolves in water. They can move freely past each other and conduct electric current.

11

Most acids are ______, meaning they destroy, clothing, body tissue, etc.

Corrosive

12

Bases have a ______ taste

Bitter

13

Bases have a ______ feel

Slippery

14

Bases have a pH ______

Above 7

15

Bases change ______ Litmus paper ______

Red
Blue

16

Solutions of bases (can, cannot) conduct electric current. Why?

Solutions of bases increase the number of hydroxide ions in a solution. They can move freely past one another and conduct electric current.

17

Name 4 uses of bases

1. Soap
2. Anti-acids
3. Bleach
4. Cleaning agents (ammonia)

18

When a base reacts with an acid, a ______ occurs. This forms ______ (a ______ substance) and a ______

Neutralization reaction
Water
Neutral
Salt

19

Neutral substances (such as ______) have a pH of ______

Water
7

20

When all the molecules of an acid break apart to form hydrogen ions (which will then form hydroium ions)when dissolved in water, the acid is considered a ______ acid.

Strong

21

When only a few the molecules of an acid break apart to form hydrogen ions (which will then form hydroium ions)when dissolved in water, the acid is considered a ______ acid.

Weak

22

When all the molecules of a base break apart to form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water, the acid is considered a ______ base.

Strong

23

When only some of the molecules of a base break apart to form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water, the acid is considered a ______ base.

Weak

24

The pH scale is a measure of the _____ concentration in a solution

Hydronium ion concentration

25

If the hydronium ion concentration of a substance increases, then its pH does what? Why?

Decreases - Increasing hydronium concentration makes a substance more acidic, which decreases its pH

26

If the hydronium ion concentration of a substance decreases, then its pH does what? Why?

Increase - If the hydronium ion concentration decreases, then the substance is less acidic/more basic, which increases its pH.

27

Substances that change color in the presence of an acid or base are called what?

Indicators

28

Ionic compounds contain _____ bonds ( _____)

Ionic
An attraction between oppositely charged ions

29

Ionic compounds can be formed by the reaction of a _____ and a _____. Why?

Metal
Nonmetal
When electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the nonmetal atoms, the metal atoms lose an electron, making them positively charged ions. The nonmetal atoms gain an electron, making them negatively charged ions. The attraction between oppositely charged ions form ionic bonds, making it an ionic compound.

30

The molecules of an ionic compound are arranged in a _____ ( _____ pattern)

Crystal lattice structure
Repeating