Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Mendel and the Gene Idea Deck (48):
How did Mendel discover the basic principles of heredity?
By breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments
What is a character?
A heritable feature that varies among individuals (such a flower color)
What is a trait?
Each variant for a character, such as purple or white colors for flowers
What is true-breeding?
Plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self pollinate
What is hybridization?
The mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding variets
What is the P generation?
Parental generation; the true-breeding parents
What is the F1 generation?
The hybrid offspring of the parental generation
What is the F2 generation?
When the FI hybrids self-pollinate, they produce an F2 generation (second filial generation)
Discuss the law of segregation as it relates to Mendel's experiment?
- When Mendel crossed contrasting, true-breeding white and purple flowered pea plants, all of the F1 hybrids were purple
- When Mendel cross the F1 hybrids, many of the F2 plants had purple flowers, but some had white
- Mendel discovered a ratio of about three to one purple to white flowers in the F2 generation
- Mendel reasoned that only the purple flower factor was affecting flower color in the FI hybrids
- Mendel called the purple flower color a dominant trait and the white flower color a recessive trait
- The factor for white flowers was not diluted or destroyed because it reappeared in the F2 generation
- Mendel observed the same pattern of inheritance in six other pea plant characteristics, each represented by two traits
- What Mendel called a "heritable factor" is now referred to as a gene
What are alleles?
Alternative versions of a gene; account for variations in inherited characters (each gene resides at a specific locus on a specific chromosome)
What are the four related concepts that made up Mendel's model?
1. Alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters (alleles)
2. For each character, an organism inherits two copies of a gene, one from each parent (the two alleles at a particular locus may be identical, as in the true-breeding plants of Mendel's P generation; or the alleles may differ, as in the F1 hybrids)
3. If the two alleles at a locus differ, then one, the dominant allele, determines the organism's appearance; the other, the recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance
4. The law of segregation; the two alleles for a heritable character segregate (separate from each other) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes (thus, an egg or sperm gets only one of the two alleles that are present in the organism); this segregation of alleles corresponds to the distribution of homologous chromosomes to different gametes in meiosis
What is a dominant allele?
An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote
What is a recessive allele?
An allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote
What is the Punnet square?
A handy diagrammatic device for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup
(A capital letter represents a dominant allele and a lowercase letter represents a recessive allele)
What is homozygous?
An organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a character; i.e. organisms that breed true with PP or pp
What is heterozygous?
An organism that has two different alleles for a gene; heterozygotes produce gametes with different alleles, so they are not true-breeding; i.e. Pp
What is phenotype?
An organism's appearance or observable traits; i.e. the color purple or white
What is genotype?
An organisms genetic makeup; i.e. PP or Pp or pp
What is the testcross?
- An individual with the dominant phenotype can be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous
- To determine the genotype we can carry out a testcross; breeding the mystery individual with a homozygous recessive individual
- If any offspring display the recessive phenotype, the mystery parent must be heterozygous
What are monohybrids?
Heterozygous for the one particular character being followed
What is a monohybrid cross?
A cross between heterozygotes
What are dihybrids?
Individuals heterozygous for the two characters being followed in the cross (YyRr)
What is a dihybrid cross?
A cross between F1 dihybrids
What is the law of independent assortment?
Two or more genes assort independently - that is, each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles - during gamete formation
- This law applies only to genes on different, nonhomologous chromosomes or those far apart on the same chromosome
- Genes located near each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
What laws govern Mendelian inheritance?
The laws of probability;
- Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment reflect the rules of probability
- When tossing a coin, the outcome of one toss has no impact on the outcome of the next toss
- In the same way, alleles of one gene segregate into gametes independently of another gene's gametes
What is the multiplication rule?
States that the probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilities;
Probability in a F1 monohybrid cross can be determined using the multiplication rule
What is the addition rule?
The probability that any one of two or more mutually exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding their individual probabilities;
The rule of addition can be used to figure out the probability than an F2 plant from a monohybrid cross will be heterozygous rather than homozygous
How might inheritance of characters by a single gene deviate from simple Mendelian patterns?
- When alleles are not completely dominate or recessive
- When a gene has more than two alleles
- When a gene produces multiple phenotypes
What is complete dominance?
Complete dominance occurs when the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are identical
What is incomplete dominance?
The phenotype of F1 hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties
Incomplete dominance in snapdragon color; When red snapdragons are crossed with white ones, the F1 hybrids have pink flowers. Segregation of alleles into gametes of the F1 plants results in an F2 generations with a 1:2:1 ratio for both genotype and phenotype because neither allele is dominant
What is codominance?
The two alleles each affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
What is pleiotrophy?
Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects; i.e. pleiotropic alleles are responsible for the multiple symptoms of certain hereditary diseases, such as sickle-cell and cystic fibrosis
What is epistasis?
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus; i.e. in labrador retrievers and many other mammals, coat color depends on two genes - one gene determines the pigment color (B for black or b for brown) while the other gene (E for color or e for no color) determines whether the pigment will be deposited in the hair
What are quantitative characters?
Those that vary in the population along a continuum
What is polygenic inheritance?
Quantitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance, an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character (i.e. skin color, height; a recent study identified at least 180 genes that affect height)
What is multifactorial?
Many factors, both genetic and environmental, collectively influence phenotype; "genotype generally is not associated with a rigidly defined phenotype, but rather with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences"
- An organism's phenotype includes its physical appearance, internal anatomy, physiology, and behavior
- An organism's phenotype represents its overall genotype and unique environmental history
What is pedigree?
A pedigree is a family tree describing the the traits of parents and children across generations; inheritance patterns of particular traits can be traced and described using pedigrees
What are carriers?
Heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele but are phenotypically normal; most individuals with recessive disorders are born to carrier parents
Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals homozygous for the allele
A cross between homozygous purple flowered and homozygous white flowered pea plants results in offspring with purple flowers. This demonstrates?
What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants?
Traits are inherited in discrete units, and are not the results of "blending"
Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. This suggests?
That the parents were both heterozygous
Two characters that appear in a 9:3:3:1 ratio in the F2 generation should have which of the following properties?
The genes controlling the characters obey the law of independent assortment
When crossing an organism that is homozygous recessive for a single trait with a heterozygote, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype?
Radish flowers may be red, purple, or white. A cross between a red flowered plant and a white flowered plant yields all purple offspring. The flower color trait in radishes is an example of which of the following?
What describes the ability of a single gene to have multiple phenotypic effects?
What describes the ABO blood group system?
The ABO blood groups in humans are determined by three alleles of a single gene: IA, IB, and i. A person's blood group may be one of four types; (6 genotypes and 4 phenotypes)
IAIA or IAi = A
IBIB or IBi = B
IAIB = AB
ii = O
*The two alleles can affect the phenotype in different ways = co-dominance
Carriers of a genetic disorder...?
Are heterozygous for the gene that can cause the disorder