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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Carbon + Test Review Deck (14):

Explain the diversity of carbon.

Carbon accounts for the enormous variety of biological molecules as it has an unparalleled ability to form molecules that are large, complex, and varied, making biodiversity possible. *Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates are all composed of carbon atoms.


What is organic chemistry?

The study of carbon containing compounds.


What is biological chemistry?

Chemistry of living systems.


What are the 6 major elements of life?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus. These elements are quite uniform from one organism to another, reflecting the common evolutionary origin of all life.


What is the valence of carbon? How many bonds does it typically form?

Carbon can form 4 bonds. This gives the element an inexhaustible ability to form an infinite variety of organic molecules. Carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds.


What are the 4 major atomic components of organic molecules? What is their valence?

H - Hydrogen - 1
O - Oxygen - 2
N - Nitrogen - 3
C - Carbon - 4


What are the 4 types of carbon skeletons? Give an example of each.

1) Length - Propane and ethane
2) Branching - Butane and isobutane
3) Double bond position - 1 butene and 2 butene
4) Presence of rings - cyclohexane and benzene


What are hydrocarbons?

Organic molecules existing of only carbon and hydrogen and can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy. *Example - fat molecules consist of a small non-hydrocarbon component joined to 3 hydrocarbon tails that account for hydrophobic behavior of fats.*


What are isomers?

Compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements (same molecular formula) but different structures and hence different properties.


What are the 3 types of isomers?

1) Structural isomers - have different covalent arrangements
2) Geometric isomers (cis-trans isomers) - have covalent bonds to the same atoms (same covalent arrangement) but differ in special arrangement
3) Enantiomers - isomers that are mirror images of each other

*SEE FIG 4.7


What are 2 properties of an organic molecule?

The properties of an organic molecule depend on the arrangement of the skeleton and also the specific chemical groups attached to that skeleton


What are functional groups?

A specific configuration of atoms attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions. Each group has certain properties, such as shape and charge, that cause it to participate in chemical reactions in a characteristic way.


What are the 7 functional groups? What are their properties? Draw

1) Hydroxl (-OH) - polar, due to electronegative -O; forms hydrogen bonds; alcohol
2) Carbonyl (C=O) - sugars; ketoses and aldoses
3) Carboxyl (-COOH) - acidic; acts as an acid, donating H+
4) Amino (-NH2) - basic; can pick up H+ from solutions
5) Sulfhydryl (-SH) - stabilizes protein structures with disulfide bonds; keratin in hair
6) Phosphate (-OPO3^2-) - contributes - charge; reacts with H2O releasing energy
7) Methyl (-CH3) - affects the expression of genes when attached to DNA; sex hormones



What is ATP and what is its primary function?

ATP - adenosine triphosphate - the primary energy transferring molecule in the cell. As ATP reacts with water it releases energy that can be used by the cell.