Flashcards in Chapter 14-Nutritional Management Of The Surgical Oncology Patient Deck (39):
The primary function of the small bowel is
The primary function of the first section of the small bowel the duodenum is
Macronutrient absorption utilizing pancreatic and bile secretions
What can occur when the second portion of the small bowel, the jejunum is resected or loses portions of the jejunum?
Loss of portions of the jejunum can result in inappropriate secretion of digestive enzymes and accelerate gastric emptying
What can occur when a significant resection of the lower jejunum and ileum occurs?
This can reduce Intestinal absorption and may result in short bowel syndrome.
Short bowel syndrome is usually defined as having less than 30% of normal intestinal length or about 200 cm in adults and 75 cm in children
Gastric acid in a small bowel stimulates the release of __________ to neutralize the acid thereby protecting the function of pancreatic enzymes and bile acid
The presence of undigested food in the colon can cause bacteria to ferment and produce lactic acid. What can this cause? And how is this situation managed?
It is managed with refined carbohydrate restriction, antibiotics and probiotics.
What is the primary digestive function of the colon
Fluid resorption and electrolyte absorption
Partial and total resections of the colon have an impact on fluid and electrolyte balances. How long does it take the colon to adapt?
At a minimum a temporary impact or it could take 2 years or longer
Bacterial overgrowth of the terminal ileum following ileocecal valve resection can reduce_________ absorption and result in the need for supplementation
Cancer patients with an ileostomy are at increased risk for________ and ______. There is an increased need for _________ and ___________
Dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities
Sodium and water
Cancer patients with an ileostomy s.hould consume more water than their ostomy. How much water should they consume?
They should consume at least one more liter of fluid than their ostomy output
What is the main function of the pancreas?
Production of bicarbonate and pancreatic enzymes, which are important or macronutrient digestion
What is the main role of the liver?
After intestinal surgery, what are the most common side effects?
Nausea, abdominal cramping and diarrhea
After intestinal surgery how long should one follow a diet to avoid the side effects after surgery?
Four to six weeks
What are the general diet recommendations for the first four to six weeks after intestinal surgery?
1) eat small frequent meals, 5 to 6 per day
2) chew Foods well
3) choose a high-protein food at each meal or snack
4) avoid high fiber foods both insoluble and soluble fiber
NO RAW vegetable, fruits, seeds or whole grains
5) limit foods high in soluble fiber, some white grains, rice , COOKED VEGETABLES ,CAN FRUITS, applesauce and bananas are okay
6) limit TOTAL fiber to less than 20 grams per day
Cereals with 3 grams of fiber or less are okay
Breads pastas and potatoes with 2 grams of fiber are less are okay
Lean tender meat, eggs, low-fat Dairy, non carbonated beverages are ok
Enteral tube feeding provided for how many days prior to surgery can reduce morbidity and mortality in malnourished surgical patients by preserving bowel mucosa and modulating the immune response
10 days prior to surgery
The benefits of enteral nutrition patients with malnutrition usually outweigh the risks of access related complications situations. Except in these are three situations.
Ascites (excess abdominal fluid)
Inoperable bowel obstruction
According to Aspen nutrition support is indicated only for more than how many days unless the patient is malnourished
7 to 10 days
How soon following major abdominal surgery does the small bowel gain function?
How soon do patients after intestinal resection resume oral intake
6 to 9 days post-operative
After operations in GI patients who are severely malnourished and you need prolonged enteral intake where should they be fed?
Jujunal feedings are recommended
Your patience nutritional support is initiated how long should this support continue
Until patient needs 2/3 or 3/4 of their nutrition and 1000 mL of fluid for 3 consecutive days
How quickly should a patient receiving surgery to the small intestine start being fed again?
Even in the absence of peristalsis and dysmotility they can be fed within 24 hours post-operatively
In esophageal surgery the resection of the VAGUS NERVE can cause the patient to experience what?
Reduce the ability to experience satiety
Cause early satiety
What connects the esophagus to the stomach?
The lower esophageal sphincter
This picture prevents stomach acid and digestive enzymes from refluxing back up into the esophagus
Removal of the Les can promote acid reflux an occurs in 58% of the patients who undergo an esophagectomy
What connects the stomach to the duodenum?
The pyloric sphincter
The disruption of the pyloric sphincter, which often occurs with a gastro jejunostomy, results in reflux of bile from the small bowel into the stomach and even into the esophagus
This is difficult to manage because unlike stomach acid there are no drugs to neutralize this
Disruption of the pyloric sphincter and gastrojejunostomy may lead to________.
____________ refers to a decrease or a stop in the production of gastric acid
________ may allow bacterial and fungal overgrowth which can cause pain when eating and lead to suboptimal intake
The acidic environment of the stomach along with the production of _____ assists in the release of the vitamin B12 from food and facilitates the absorption in the in the terminal ileum
Intrinsic factor (IF)
What type of surgery can cause the loss of the intrinsic factor
Proximal gastric resection
What type of nutritional deficiency can occur as early as one year after a total gastrectomy
A B12 deficiency
A protein restriction of 0.8 is recommended for liver disease when what is present?
Mental status change
Hypoalbuminemia in the setting of liver disease and or liver surgery can result in malabsorption due to what?
Edema of the bowel wall
A patient has had surgery of the small bowel and has had the pyloric valve removed
They are experiencing diarrhea, bloating, nausea and tachycardia immediately or about 30 minutes after meals. What issue could they be experiencing? And what nutrition intervention would you suggest?
EARLY DUMPING SYNDROME- high sugar foods pull more water into the intestine to dilute the sugars, causing dumping
Small frequent meals
Separation of solids and fluids and meals, separate fluids 45 minutes before eating or one hour after eating
Reduction in simple carbohydrates + concentrated fat and high sugar foods
Avoid high fiber foods with 3 grams of fiber or more
The patient has had surgery on the small bowel and it has had the pyloric valve removed
Side effects include hypoglycemia, and dizziness at least 90 to 180 minutes after meals. What could be the issue with this patient? And what would be the nutritional intervention you would suggest?
LATE DUMPING SYNDROME
A lot of sugar being released into the bloodstream can cause blood sugar to quickly rise hypoglycemia
Small frequent meals
Separation of solids and fluids and meals 45 minutes before or 1 hour after meals
Reduce simple carbohydrates + concentrated fat and high sugar foods and juices
Avoid high fiber foods with 3 grams of fiber or more
With LATE DUMPING eat protein fat and soluble fiber sources with each meal these may slow the rate that sugar is absorbed into the blood. Do not eat more than three servings of grain, juice or fruit in one meal
How long should an anti-dumping diet be followed after a digestive tract surgery?
Usually 6 to 8 weeks