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Flashcards in Chapter 14 outline Deck (145)
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1

Between what costal cartilage is the heart located?

behind the sternum between 3rd and 6th costal cartilage

2

What is the top and bottom of the heart called?

base (top) bottom (apex)

3

What is it called when your heart is positioned to the right instead of the left?

dextrocardia

4

if the heart and stomach are on the right and liver on the left it is called?

situs inversus (rare)

5

What is the double-walled fibrous sac with fluid in between the walls = low friction movement

pericardium

6

What is the outermost layer of heart

epicardium

7

What is the muscle layer responsible for pumping?

myocardium

8

What lines the chambers of heart and covers heart valves?

endocardium

9

Name the layers of the pericardium from outermost to inner most?

Epicardium ->Myocardium -> Endocardium

10

Name the four chambers of the heart, their thickness and what they do?

2 X atria (thin walled)-house blood returning from veins
2 X ventricles (thick walled) pump blood into arteries

11

The left and right chambers of the heart are separated by (blank), which is impenetrable to blood

interventricular septum

12

What are the two types of important valves of the heart and what do they do?

Atrioventricular
• Tricuspid = between right atrium and right ventricle
• Bicuspid/Mitral = between left atrium and left ventricle

Semilunar
• Pulmonic = between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
• Aortic = between left ventricle and aorta

13

Where is the tricupsid located?

between right atrium and right ventricle

14

Where is the bicuspid/mitral valve located?

between left atrium and left ventricle

15

Where is the pulmonic valves located?

between right ventrical and pulmonary artery

16

Where is the aortic valve located?

between left ventricle and aorta.

17

What happens during systole?

ventricles contract to eject blood into arteries ( aortic and pulmonary)

18

What happens during diastole?

atria contract to get blood into ventricles

19

During the S1 what do you hear and what happens?

lubb, tricuspid and mitral valves CLOSE as ventricle contracts

20

During the S2 what do you hear and what happens?

dubb  aortic and pulmonic valves CLOSE when ventricle is empty
• 2 components (not always distinguishable):
o A2 and P2
A2  aortic valve closes = happens first
P2  pulmonic valve closes = happens second

21

During the S3 what happens?

sound of blood rushing from atria to ventricles = not always heard

22

During S4 what happens?

atria fully contract to make sure no blood is left in atria = also not always heard

23

What is the path of impulse for a ECG?

SA (sinoatrial) Node -> AV (atrioventricular) Node -> Bundle of His -> Purkinje Fibers in ventricles

24

What does the ECG path of impulse allow for and how does the ventricular contraction move?

Atria contract before ventricles and contraction begins at apex and moves toward the base

25

What are ECG waves based on?

 Based on depolarization and repolarization of cardiac myocytes

26

Describe the ECG waves

 P Wave  atrial depolarization
 PR interval  time in between atrial depolarization and ventricular depolarization
 QRS complex  ventricular depolarization
 ST segment and T wave  ventricular repolarization
 U wave  small deflection seen after T wave
 QT interval  time between onset of ventricular depolarization and completion
of ventricular repolarization=pretty much systole

27

explain the path of blood flow for infants

• Umbillical cord  Liver  Right Atrium  Right Ventricle OR Left Atrium via foramen ovale

28

In an infant, if the blood moves to the right ventricle then it will move by way of (blank), cuz lungs arent functional.
What if it moves to the left atrium?

o If it goes to right ventricle -> ductus arteriosus instead of pulmonary artery b/c lungs aren’t yet functional -> joins aorta and goes to rest of body
o If it goes to the left atrium ->l eft ventricle -> aorta

29

In an infant, are the atria and ventricles the same size?

yes

30

when does the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale CLOSE?

at birth