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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (15)
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1
Q

What are the different cost types of sickness absence?

A
  • Costs for the worker: adverse outcomes such as job loss and a weakened financial position, but it also allows them to recover
  • Costs for colleagues: loss of job satisfaction, increasing workload
  • Costs for the organization: financial costs due to sick leave provision
  • Costs for society: the costs of public health, lower overall productivity in society
2
Q

How can we measure sickness absence?

A
  • Frequency-based approaches -> how often?
  • Duration-based approaches -> total days absent?
  • Volition-based approaches -> looks at voluntary and avoidable absence (best measured in frequency) and involuntary and unavoidable absence (best measured in duration)
3
Q

What is the general work stress model in the traditional approaches of examining sickness absence?

A

Using general job stress model (e.g., the DCS model and the ERI model) to identify potential antecedents of sickness absence. High job demands and high effort predicted short+long term absence.

4
Q

What is the job strain approach in the traditional approaches of examining sickness absence?

A

This approach developed the job strain-sickness absence model. This model states that (1) sickness absence is a form of withdrawal behaviour; job strain leads to sickness absence and (2) the restorative function of sickness absence; employees can restore their resources and their ability to cope with job strain when they are sick.

5
Q

What is the burnout approach in the traditional approaches of examining sickness absence?

A

The PUMA Model on burnout-sickness absence assumes that burnout and sickness absence will mutually influence each other. However research confirmed that burnout could lead to sickness absence, but not vice versa

6
Q

What is sickness presence?

A

Being present at the job while feeling sick

7
Q

Why is sickness presence especially high in contractual professions such as health care and education?

A

Workers consider themselves irreplaceable

8
Q

What are the costs of sickness presence of individual level?

A
  • Future ill-health

- Work more inefficiently, work at reduced capacity, making more mistakes, etc.

9
Q

What are the costs of sickness presence at group level?

A
  • Colleagues are at risk of becoming sick

- Sick present group members may negatively affect collective performance, cohesion and JS

10
Q

What are the costs of sickness presence at organizational level?

A
  • Reduced productivity and lower profits
  • A competitive presenteeism culture can arise when the organizational culture is focusing on sickness presence at all costs
11
Q

What are the costs of sickness presence at societal level?

A
  • Overall productivity losses and long-term public health effects
12
Q

Explain the Illness Flexibility Model (IF Model) (contemporary model of sickness absence)

A

The illness flexibility model assumes that whether a worker will report sick depends on two factors:

  1. their opportunities to reduce or alter work effort when feeling ill
  2. the attendance requirements in the organization
    - > Chances are high that sick workers will report sick when there are little opportunities to reduce work efforts and when the attendance requirements are low and vice versa
13
Q

Explain the model of sickness presence and sickness absence by Aronsson and Gustafsson

A

Whether sick workers decide to go work or to stay home depends on person- and work-related demands for presence.

  • Person-related demands e.g., individual boundarylessness and financial needs
  • Work-related demands for presence e.g., having sufficient job resources, control and pace at work
14
Q

What are positive and negative demands for presence

A
  • Positive demands for presence are associated with higher levels of sickness presence
  • Negative demands for presence are associated with sickness absence
15
Q

Explain Johns’ dynamic model of presenteeism and absenteeism

A

Absence and presence are affected by context and person factors, such as job security, ease of replacement, work attitudes and personality factors