Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (16):

Name the three material removal processes

Machining - sharp cutting tool

Abrasive process - Hard abrasive particles like grinding

Nontraditional process - Energy forms


Benefits of Machining (3)

Screw threads

Accurate round holes

Very straight edges and surfaces


Disadvantages of machining (2)

Wasteful of material

Time consuming relative to another shaping process


Explain turning. What moves what does it form

Single point cutting tool
rotate workpiece to form a cylindrical shape. Move tool.


Explain drilling. What moves what does it form

Rotate toolpiece. Move tool.
Creates round holes with two cutting edges


Explain milling. What moves what does it form

Rotate multiple-cutting-edge tool. Move piece.
Cut a plane or straight face.


Explain single-point tools vs multiple cutting edge tools.

One dominant edge. Point rounded to form a nose.

More than one cutting edge.


Describe the three dimensions of machining.

State the Material removal rate formula Rmr

Cutting speed v - Primary motion

Feed f - secondary motion

Depth of cut d - penetration of tool below work surface

Rmr = v f d


Roughing vs finishing

Roughing - High feeds and depths; low speed

Finishing - Low feeds and depths; high cutting speed


State the three functions in machining

Holds workpart
Positions tool relative to work
Provides power at determined speed, feed, and depth


State the Chip thickness ration r

r = to / tc

to - depth of cut
tc - chip thickness
Ratio always less than 1


State the four basic types of chips (3)

Discontinuous - Brittle work. Low cutting speed. Large feed and depth of cut. High tool-chip friction

Continuous - Ductile. High cutting speed. Small f and d. Low tool-chip friction

Continuous with Built-up edge - Ductile. Low to med v. Tool-chip friction causes portions of chip to adhere to rake face. Built-up edge forms and breaks off cyclically

Serrated - Difficult-to-machine metals. High cutting speed. Cyclical chip forms with alternating high shear strain then low shear strain.


State the merchant equation for minimizing the energy thru shear plane angle phi. What does it say? (3)

phi = 45 + alpha/2 - beta/2

Phi is angle from surface to chip shear plane.
Alpha is orthogonal angle to tool face.
Beta is orthogonal angle b/w resultant force of tool to face of chip.

In order to increase shear plane angle increase rake angle and/or reduce the friction angle (reduce coefficient of friction).

Larger shear angle, smaller shear plane which lowers shear force, cutting forces, power, and temp


State the Power to perform machining formula

Pc = Fc v
HPc = Fc v / 33,000

Pc - cutting power
Fc - cutting force
v - cutting speed


Problems with high cutting temp (3)

Reduce tool life

Produce hot chips = safety hazard

Cause inaccuracies from thermal expansion of work material


Cutting temp formula

T = (0.4 U)/ (p C) (v to/K)^0.333

T = temp rise
U = spec energy
v = cutting speed
to = depth of cut
pC = volumetric specific heat of work material
K = thermal diffusivity of work material