Chapter 15 - Cardiovascular Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Cardiovascular Emergencies Deck (28):
1

What does ALS stand for?

Advanced Life Support - an advanced level of EMS care for which providers are trained and authorized to insert advanced airway devices, initiate IV lines, and give medications.

2

What are the upper chambers of the heart called?

Atria

3

What are the lower chambers of the heart called?

Ventricles

4

Describe the blood flow through the heart.

  1. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium via the vena cava
  2. During contraction of the right atrium blood passes the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
  3. The right ventricle contracts and blood passes the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.
  4. Blood flows to the lungs and gases are exchanged
  5. Blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs through the pulmonary vein
  6. The left atrium cantracts and blood passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
  7. During contraction of the left ventricle blood is forced through the aortic valve into the aorta and the rest of the body

5

What is the myocardium?

Heart muscle tissue

6

What is the epicardium?

Outter layer of the heart.

7

What are arteries?

Blood vessles that carry blood away from the heart, mostly oxygentated.

8

What are veins?

Vessles that carry boold toward the heart, normally deoxygenated.

9

What does CAD stand for and what is it?

Coronary artery disease - Narrowing of the coronary arteries which supply the heart itself with blood.

10

What is atherosclerosis?

A form of arteriosclerosis in which cholesterol and plaques form within the walls of arteries.

11

What is an infarction?

formation of an area of dead tissue due to inadequate blood flow.

12

What is CHF?

Congestive heart failure - failure of the heart to efficiently pump blood to body tissues.

13

What is hypertension?

Abnormally high blood pressure.

14

What is angina pectoris?

sudden chest pain due to inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart.

15

What is ischemia?

A deficiency in blood supply.

16

What is an AMI?

An acute myocardial infarction is an interruption of blood supply to the heart which results in heart tissue death. 

17

What is ventricular fibrillatiion?

chaotic and ineffective contractions of the ventricles.

18

What is ventricular tachycardia?

rapid contraction of the ventricles that can lead to ineffective blood flow.

19

What is SCA?

Sudden cardiac arrest - abrupt cessation of an effective heartbeat.

20

What is asystole?

absence of a heartbeat.

21

What is a thrombus?

a clot in the blood.

22

What is an embolus?

a clot, fat, or other solid material that breaks loose and is carried in the bloodstream, lodging in another site.

23

What is pericarditis?

Inflammation of the pericardium.

24

What is the pericardium?

the sac that surrounds the heart.

25

What is an aneurysm?

A weakend portion of a blood vessel that "balloons" out.

26

What does a distended jugular vein indicate.

Congestive Heart Failure

27

WHat is nitroglycerine used to treat?

angina pectoris

28