Chapter 14 - Allergies and Anaphylaxis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Allergies and Anaphylaxis Deck (16):

What is an allergy?

An exaggerated immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction.


What is an antigen?

A foreign substance that stimulates the production of an antibody.


What is an antibody?

A protein that is produced by the body to neutralize or destroy specific antigens.


What is anaphylaxis?

a severe allergic reaction that can result in cardiac or respiratory compromise.


What is hypersensitivity?

An exaggerated immune response to an allergen, drug, or foreign substance.


What is histamine?

a chemical that is released in the body as a result of an allergic reaction.


What is urticaria?

hives or rash


What is puritus?

Severe itching


What is angioedema?

Swelling under the skin or mucosa as a result of an allergic reaction.


What are the life threatening responses to the body during anaphylaxis?

Occluded upper airway
Labored breathing
Falling blood pressure
Weak pulse
Poor tissue perfusion


What is the Triple A approach to preventing allergic reaction?

Awareness - knowing that you have an allergy and the things that can trigger it and having an emergency plan if a reaction occurs.
Avoidance - avoiding contact with known allergens
Action - what you should do if you have a reaction (early care and self-treatment)


What are the signs and symptoms of a mild allergic reaction?

- Itching/scratching
- Flushed skin
- Rash or hives over face and neck
- Watery, red eyes
- Nasal congestion
- Increased heart rate
- Tingling an/around the mouth
- Fatigue


What are the signs and symptoms of a moderate allergic reaction?

- Anxiety, confusion
- Tightness in the throat
- Difficulty swallowing
- Difficulty breathing
- Wheezing
- Rash or hives on face, neck, chest, or arms
- Persistent intching/scratching
- Angioedema of the face or hands
- Abdominal pain or cramping
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Elevated vital signs


What are the signs and symptoms of a moderate allergic reaction?

- Severe anxiety, feeling of impending doom
- Decreased level of responsiveness
- Severe respiratory distress
- Abnormal lung sounds
- Severe angioedema of the tongue, face, and hands
- Hives (anywhere)
- Inability to swallow
- Tachycardia
- Weak or absent peripheral pulse
- Hypotension
- Pallor
- Cyanosis around the lips and face


What are the S/S of anaphylactic Shock?

- Systolic blood pressure below 90
- Respirations greater than 20 rpm
- Heart rate greater than 110 bpm
- Decreased LOR, GCS less than 14


List the steps in helping a patient with the administration of an Auto-injector.

1. Determine a safe scene
2. Initiate standard precautions
3. Obtain permission
4. Verify correct Rx, route, dose, and current
5. Ensure Pt meets medical requirements
6. Remove cap with black point toward thigh and fingers on side.
7. Assist Pt by striking the outer thigh between the hip and knee and hold for 10 seconds.
8. Massage for 10 seconds
9. Record event for type, quality, and time
10. Reassess vitals and lung sounds
11. If applicable assist with second auto injector
12. properly dispose of pens