Chapter 15- Cognitive Development In Adolescence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15- Cognitive Development In Adolescence Deck (95):
1

During adolescence, young people first become capable of this. When faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they did deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning

2

Adolescents' performance on Piaget's famous ________ ________ illustrates their new approach to problem-solving

Pendulum problem

3

How do concrete operational children attempt to solve the pendulum problem?

Strings of different lengths, objects of different weights attached to the strings, and a bar from which to hang the strings are presented and children are asked to figure out what influences the speed with which a pendulum swings through it's arc

Concrete operational children cannot separate the effects of each variable. Amy test for the effect of string length without holding weight constant comparing, for example, a short, light pendulum with a long, heavy one. Also, they typically failed to notice variables that are not immediately suggested by the concrete materials of the task, for example, how high the object is raised or how forcefully it is released

Formal operational adolescence hypothesize that for variables might be influential: the length of the string, the weight of the object hung on it, how high the object is raised before it is released, and how forcefully the object is pushed. By varying one factor at a time while holding the other three constant, they test each variable separately and, if necessary, also in combination and eventually they discover that only string length makes a difference

4

Adolescents' ability to evaluate the logic of propositions, or verbal statements, without referring to real-world circumstances

Propositional thought

5

True or false: even though Piaget did not view language as playing a central role in children's cognitive development, he acknowledged its importance in adolescents

True. Formal operations require language-based and other symbolic systems that do not stand for real things, such as those in higher mathematics and also involves verbal reasoning about abstract concepts

6

What are examples illustrating that school age children show signs of hypothetico-deductive reasoning and propositional thought but are not yet as competent at it as adolescents

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: in simplified situations-ones involving no more than two possible causes-six-year-olds understand that hypotheses must be confirmed by appropriate evidence and also realize that once a hypothesis is supported, it shapes predictions about what might happen in the future. But school-age children cannot sort out evidence that bears on three or more variables at once and also have difficulty explaining why a pattern of observation supports a hypothesis

Propositional thought: when a simple set of premises defies real world knowledge (all cats bark. Rex is a cat. Does Rex bark?), 4 to 6-year-olds can reason logically in make-believe play. In justifying their answer, they are likely to say, "we can pretend cats bark!". But in an entirely verbal mode, children had great difficulty reasoning from premises that contradict reality of their own beliefs

7

Children failed to grasp the _______ _______ of propositional reasoning-that the accuracy of conclusions drawn from premises rests on the rules of logic, not real world confirmation

Logical necessity

8

List three advances in reasoning during adolescence that illustrate their ability to apply logic

Young people become better at analyzing the logic of a series of propositions, regardless of their content

As they get older, they handle problems requiring increasingly complex sets of mental operations

In justifying their reasoning, they move from giving a concrete example to explaining the logical rules on which it is based

9

Explain why so many adults are not fully formal operational

One reason is that people are most likely to think abstractly and systematically on tasks in which they have had extensive guidance and practice in using such reasoning. For example, taking college courses leads to improvements in formal reasoning related to course content and math and science prompt gains in propositional thought. Like concrete reasoning and children, formal operations do not emerge in all contexts at once but are specific to situation and task

10

True or false: despite few opportunities to solve hypothetical problems, most people in tribal and village society still master formal operational tasks

False. Individuals in tribal and village societies rarely do well on tasks typically used to assess formal operational reasoning

11

Information-processing theorists refer to seven specific mechanisms that underlie cognitive change in adolescence. List of them.

Attention, inhibition, strategies, knowledge, metacognition, cognitive self-regulation, speed of thinking and processing capacity increase

12

Which of the mechanisms underlying cognitive change in adolescence do information-processing researchers regard as central to adolescent cognitive development?

Metacognition

13

True or false: Kuhn's research into the development of scientific reasoning indicates that children as young as third-grade are able to alter their theories to reflect conflicting evidence

False, children are especially likely to overlook evidence that does not match their prior beliefs when a causal variable is implausible and when task demands are high

14

What are major changes in scientific reasoning from childhood into adolescence and adulthood

The ability to distinguish theory from evidence and to use logical rules to examine the relationship in complex, multivariable situations improve steadily from childhood through adolescence, continuing into adulthood

15

Identify two factors that support adolescents' skill at coordinating theory with evidence

Greater working-memory capacity, permitting a theory and the effects of several variables to be compared at once

Exposure to increasingly complex problems and instruction that highlights critical features of scientific reasoning

16

The number of years that a child spends in school has a weak/strong influence on the development of scientific reasoning

Strong

17

Briefly explain how advances in metacognitive understanding promote adolescents cognitive development

When adolescents regularly pit theory against evidence over many weeks, they experiment with various strategies, reflect on and revise them, and gradually become aware of the nature of logic. Then they apply their appreciation of logic to an increasingly wide range of situations. The ability to think about theories, deliberately isolate variables, and actively seek disconfirming evidence is rarely present before adolescence

18

True or false: like Piaget, information-processing theorists maintain that scientific reasoning develops from an abrupt, stage wise change

False. Information-processing findings confirm that scientific reasoning does not result from an abrupt, stagewise change. Instead, it develops gradually out of many specific experiences that require children and adolescents to match theories against evidence and reflect on and evaluate their thinking

19

List for ways to handle the consequences of teenagers new cognitive capacities

Sensitivity to public criticism: refrain from finding fault with the adolescent in front of others. If the matter is important, wait until you can speak to the teenager alone

Exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness: acknowledge the adolescent's unique characteristics. At opportune times, encourage a more balanced perspective by pointing out that you had similar feelings as a teenager

Idealism and criticism: respond patiently to the adolescents grand expectations and critical remarks. Point out positive features of targets, helping the teenager see that all societies and people are blends of virtues and imperfections

Difficulty making every day decisions: refrain from deciding for the adolescent. Model effective decision-making, and offer diplomatic suggestions about the pros and cons of alternatives, the likelihood of various outcomes, and learning from poor choices

20

Piaget's followers suggest that two distorted images of the relationship between self and other appear in adolescence. The _______ ______ refers to adolescent's belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern. The _______ ______ refers to teenagers belief that they are special and unique

Imaginary audience; personal fable

21

The imaginary audience and personal fable do/do not result from egocentrism, as Piaget suggested. Explain your response

Do not result from egocentrism. Rather, they are partly an outgrowth of advances in perspective taking, which cause young teenagers to be more concerned with what others think

22

List several positive aspects of the imaginary audience and personal fable

Imaginary audience: when asked why they worry about the opinions of others, adolescents report that they do so because others evaluations have important real consequences-for self-esteem, peer acceptance, and social support. The idea that others care about their appearance and behavior also has emotional value, helping teenagers hold onto important relationships as a struggle to separate from parents and establish an independent sense of self

Personal fable: in a study of 6th through 10th graders, sense of omnipotence predicted self-esteem and overall positive adjustment. Leaving the self as highly capable and influential may help young people cope with the challenges of adolescents.

23

True or false: adolescents who score highly on evaluations of the personal fable and levels of sensation-seeking tend to engage in more risky behavior than that of their age mates

True. By reducing teenager's sense of vulnerability. They tend to take more sexual risks, more often use drugs, and commit more delinquent acts

24

Provide an example of how the development of idealism leads adolescence to become overly critical

Their ability to think about possibilities opens up the world of the ideal. Teenagers can imagine alternative family, religious, political, and moral systems, and they want to explore them. They often construct a grand visions of a world with no injustice, discrimination, or tasteless behavior. The disparity between teenagers idealism and adults greater realism creates tension between parent and child

25

How are idealism and criticism advantageous to teenagers?

Once adolescents come to see other people as having both strengths and weaknesses, they have a much greater capacity to work constructively for social change and to form positive and lasting relationships

26

True or false: teenagers struggle with planning and decision-making because they find it difficult to think rationally and inhibit their emotions

True

27

Good decision-making involves four steps. List them

Identifying pros and cons of each alternative

Assessing the likelihood of various outcomes

Evaluating one's choice in terms of whether one's goals were met, and if not,

Learning from the mistake and making better future decisions

28

When making decisions, adolescents often emphasize short-term/long-term goals

Short term

29

Why is adult supervision important as adolescence refine their decision-making skills?

Because engaging in risky taking without experiencing harmful outcomes can heighten adolescent's sense of invulnerability. They need supervision and protection from high-risk experiences until their decision-making improves

30

Boys/girls score higher than boys/girls on tests of verbal ability throughout childhood and adolescence

Girls score higher than boys

31

True or false: the gap in reading and writing achievement between young men and women is believed to be a major factor in the changing gender demographic of college campuses in the United States

True. 30 years ago, males accounted for 60% of US undergraduate students; today, they are in the minority, at 42%

32

Explain why the gender gap in verbal abilities exists, citing both biological and environmental reasons

Biological: girls have a biological advantage in earlier development of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, where language is usually localized
FMRI research indicates that in tackling language tasks, 9 to 15-year-old girl show concentrated activity in language specific areas whereas boys display more widespread activation which suggests that girls are more efficient language processors then boys, who rely heavily on sensory brain regions and process spoken and written words differently

Environmental: girls also receive more verbal stimulation from the preschool years through adolescence, which may contribute to their more efficient processing. Also, language arts is viewed as a feminine subject and as a result of the high-stakes testing movement, students today spend more time at their desks being taught in a regimented way-and approach particularly at odds with boys higher activity level, assertiveness, and incidence of learning problems

33

Provide an example of a sex difference in mathematical ability

Girls tend to be advantaged in arithmetic computation, perhaps because of their better verbal skills and more methodical approach to problem-solving. But in early adolescence, when math concepts become more abstract and spatial, boy start to outperform girls and the difference is especially evident on tests of complex reasoning and geometry

34

Summarize how heredity and social pressures contribute to the gender gap in mathematics

Heredity: the tendency for more boys to be extremely talented. Accumulating evidence indicates that boys advantage originates in two skill areas- there more rapid numerical memory, which permits them to devote more energy to complex mental operations; and their superior spatial reasoning, which enhances their mathematical problem-solving

Social pressures: many children view math as a masculine subject. Also, many parents think boys are better at it-an attitude that encourages girls to view themselves as having to work harder at math to do well, to blame their errors on lack of ability, and to consider math less useful for their future lives and these beliefs, intern, reduce girls confidence and interest in math. Stereotype threat-fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype causes females to do worse than their abilities allow on difficult math problems

35

What are three strategies used to promote girls interest in and confidence at math and science

Cultures that value gender equality: sex differences in math achievement are much smaller and sometimes reversed

And intervention in which students are taught that mental abilities are not fixed but can be improved

A math curriculum beginning in kindergarten that teaches children how to apply effective spatial strategies such as drawing diagrams, mentally manipulating visual images, searching for numerical patterns, and graphing

Exposure to successful women as role models

36

Describe two spatial tasks on which individuals evidence a notable sex difference in performance

Mental rotation tasks in which individuals must rotate a three dimensional figure rapidly and accurately inside their heads-favors males

Spatial perception tasks, in which people must determine spatial relationships by considering the orientation of the surrounding environment-favors males

37

True or false: sex differences in spatial abilities persist throughout the lifespan

True. The pattern is consistent enough to suggest a biological explanation

38

List biological and environmental factors that may contribute to sex differences in spatial abilities

Biological: evolutionary theorists point out that mental rotation skill predicts rapid, accurate map drawing and interpretation, areas in which boys and men do better than girls and women. Over the course of human evolution, the cognitive abilities of males became adapted for hunting, which require generating mental representations of large-scale spaces to find one's way

Environmental: children who engage in manipulative activities, such as block play, model building, and carpentry, do better on spatial tasks as well as playing video games which enhances many cognitive process is important for spatial skills. Boy spend far more time than girls at these pursuits

39

True or false: training and early intervention have little effect on girls performance on spatial tasks, leading researchers to conclude that sex differences in these areas are biologically determined

False, spatial skills respond readily to training, with improvements often larger than the sex differences themselves but girls and boys usually show similar training effects. These findings suggest that the right kind of early intervention can override biologically-based sex differences in spatial skills

40

Identify three changes in adolescent's vocabularies

Adolescence add a variety of abstract words to their vocabularies

Also master sarcasm and irony

Grasp of figurative language improves greatly. Pro verbs are especially challenging

Use more elaborate grammatical constructions-longer sentences consisting of a greater number of subordinate clauses

41

Provide an example illustrating gains in grammatical development during the teenage years

Use more elaborate grammatical constructions-longer sentences consisting of a greater number of subordinate clauses

Persuasive speaking and writing, which draw on adolescents advance perspective-taking skill, illustrate this change. With age, this challenging form of communication contains many more connecting words, such as although, moreover, and on the other hand

42

Explain why overt grammar instruction in US schools is making a comeback

It is prompted by the mediocre writing skills of many adolescents. About only one fourth of US high school seniors scored they proficient level or above in writing achievement

43

Summarize Guines in adolescents communication skills

They have an improved capacity to adapt language style to social context-in part because teenagers have opportunities to enter many more situations

Greater skill at reflecting on the features of language and engaging in cognitive self-regulation also supports effective use of language styles

44

Explain the social function of teenage slang

It is another illustration of their mastery of language styles.

Cyber sling is devised to facilitate communication while protecting its privacy. Teenagers use slang as a sign of group belonging and as a way to distinguish themselves from adults

45

List several reasons why adolescents grades decline with the transition to secondary school

The drop is partly due to tighter academic standards. At the same time, the transition to secondary school often means less personal attention, more whole-class instruction, and less chance to participate in classroom decision-making

46

Boys/girls tend to have more difficulty with school transitions and experience a greater drop in self-esteem. Why is this the case?

Girls. Perhaps because the transition tends to coincide with other life changes such as the onset of puberty and dating

47

What are some characteristics of an adolescent whose school performance remains low or drops sharply after school transition

Often show a persisting pattern of poor self-esteem, motivation, and achievement

48

List three ways that parents, teachers, and peers can ease the strain of school transitions

Parental involvement, monitoring, gradual autonomy granting, and emphasis on mastery rather than merely good grades are associated with better adjustment

Adolescents with close friends are more likely to sustain these friendships across the transition, which increases social integration and academic motivation

Forming smaller units within large schools promotes close relations with both teachers and peers along with greater extracurricular involvement

49

Identify several small changes that promote favorable adjustment after a school transition

In the first year after a school transition, homerooms can be provided in which teachers offer academic and personal counseling and work closely with parents to promote favorable adjustment. Assigning students to classes with several familiar peers or a constant group of new peers strengthens emotional security and support

50

List four environmental factors that support high academic achievement in adolescence

Child-rearing practices: authoritative parenting, joint parent-adolescent decision-making, parent involvement in the adolescent's education

Peer influences: peer valuing of and support for high achievement

School characteristics: teachers who are warm and supportive, develop personal relationships with parents, and show them how to support their teenagers learning. Learning activities that encourage high-level thinking. Active student participation in learning activities and classroom decision making

Employment schedule: job commitment limited to less than 15 hours per week. High-quality vocational education for non-college-bound adolescents

51

How do each of the four child-rearing styles contribute to adolescents academic achievement? Which is the most effective and why?

Authoritative: linked to higher grades in school among adolescents varying widely in SES

Authoritarian and permissive: associated with lower grades

Uninvolved: predicts the poorest grades and worsening school performance overtime

The authoritative parenting style is the most effective because these parents adjust their expectations to children's capacity to take responsibility for their own behavior. Adolescents who his parents engage in joint decision-making, gradually permitting more autonomy with age, achieves especially well. Warmth, open discussion, firmness, and monitoring of adolescents whereabouts and activities make young people feel cared about and valued, encourage reflective thinking and self-regulation, and increase awareness of the importance of doing well in school

52

How do parent-school partnerships foster academic achievement?

Parents who are in frequent contact with the school send a message to their child about the value of education, model constructive solutions to academic problems, and promote wise educational decisions-factors that induce in teenagers a sense of academic self efficacy, of being able to handle academic challenges

53

List for ways schools can strengthen parent-school partnerships

Schools can build a parent-school partnerships by strengthening personal relationships between teachers and parents, building bridges between minority home cultures and the culture of the school, tapping parents talents to improve the quality of school programs, and including parents in school governance so they remain invested in school goals

54

Provide an example of how peers contribute to adolescent achievement

For example, when Sabrina began to make new friends in middle school, she often studied with her girlfriends. Each girl wanted to do well and reinforced this desire in the others

55

Of the diverse characteristics on which friends resemble each other, this has the strongest association with future adjustment

Grade point average

56

Provide an example of how peer support for high achievement depends on the overall climate of the peer culture

In one study, integration into the school peer network predicted higher grades a monk occasions and Hispanics but not among Asians and African-Americans. Asian cultural values stress respect for family and teacher expectations over close pier ties. African-American my Nordie adolescents may observe that there ethnic group is worse off than the white majority in educational attainment and discriminatory treatment by teachers and peers, often resulting from stereotypes that they are not intelligent, triggers anxiety, anger, self-doubts, declines in achievement, association with peers who are not interested in school, and increases in problem behaviors

57

How can schools promote academic achievement among ethnic minority students?

Schools that build close networks of support with teachers and other students are also powerful. For example, schools that reorganized into career academies-learning communities within the school, each offering A different career related curriculum. The smaller school climate and focus on a common theme help create caring teacher-student relationships and a pure culture that fostered a sense of belonging, valuing of school engagement, mutual support, collaboration on projects, and academic success

58

Compare the classroom experiences of adolescents who make gains in academic motivation and cognitive self-regulation versus students who show a decline in these areas

Increase in motivation and cognitive self regulation: classrooms were high in teacher support, encouragement of student interaction about academic work, and promotion of mutual respect among classmates.

Decrease in motivation and cognitive self regulation: classrooms emphasized competition and public comparison of students

59

A large/small number of low-SES minority students are assigned to noncollege tracks in high school. What effect does this have on student achievement?

Large. Perpetuates educational inequalities of earlier years

60

Explain how tracking in the United States differs from that in Japan, China, and many western European nations, and note the impact of these differences on student outcomes

Differences: in China, Japan, and most western European countries, students placement is determined by their performance on a national exam. The outcome usually fixes the young person's future possibilities. In the US, students who are not assigned to a college preparatory track or who achieve poorly in high school can still attend college

Impact: many young people do not benefit from the more open US system. By adolescents, SES differences and quality of education and academic achievement are greater in the US than most other industrialized countries and the US has a higher percentage of young people who see themselves as educational failures and drop out of high school

61

Engaging in two or more media activities at once, some or most of the time

Media multitasking

62

Provide an example of how media multitasking reduces the efficiency of learning

Media multitasking fragments the attention span, greatly reducing learning.

In one experiment, participants or given to tasks: learning to predict the weather in two different cities using colored shapes as cues and keeping a mental tally of how many high-pitched beep's they heard through headphones. Half the sample performed the tasks simultaneously, the other half separately. Both groups learn to predict the weather in the two city situation, but the multitaskers run able to apply their learning to new weather problems

63

True or false: adolescents who frequently engage in media multitasking are usually able to focus on a single task, such as studying for a test, if they work in an environment without any distractions

False

64

Explain how the US no Child left behind act broadens high-stakes testing

Broadens high-stakes testing to the identification of passing and failing schools. The law mandates that each state evaluate every public schools performance to annual achievement testing and publicize the results. School that consistently perform poorly must give parents options for upgrading their children's education, such as transfers to nearby, higher performing schools or enrollment in remedial classes. Some states offer schoolwide rewards for highschooler's, including official crazy and financial bonuses to school staff and penalties are imposed for low scores which include withdrawl of accreditation, state takeover, and closure

65

Summarize potential benefits of high-stakes testing

Proponents believe that it introduces greater rigor into classroom teaching, improve student motivation and achievement, and either turns around poor performing schools or protect students from being trapped in them

66

Evidence indicates that high-stakes testing undermines/upgrades the quality of education

Undermines

67

Identify a concern about high-stakes testing

High-stakes testing promotes fear-a poor motivator for upgrading teaching and learning

Causes teachers to spend large amounts of time on activities that closely resemble test items and classroom experiences and assignments that require high-level reasoning are deemphasized as our subjects not covered on the tests

68

True or false: high-stakes testing has increased the emphasis on teaching for deeper understanding

False, there is a trend toward teaching to tests

69

The US dropout rate is higher among boys/girls and is particularly high among low SES ethnic minority/learning-disabled students

Boys; low-SES ethnic minority youth, especially Native American and Hispanic teenagers

70

What are two consequences of dropping out of high school?

Youth without upper secondary education have much lower literacy scores than high school graduates, and they lack the skills valued by employers in today's knowledge-based economy

Consequently, dropouts have much lower employment rates than high school graduates and even when employed, are far more likely to remain in menial low paid jobs and to be out of work from time to time

71

Identify several student, family, and school and community characteristics related to dropping out

Student: Poor school attendance, inattentiveness in class, discipline problems especially aggressive behavior, inability to get along with teachers, 1 to 2 years behind in grade level, low academic achievement, dislike of school, low educational aspirations, low self-esteem, drug use

Family: parents who do not support or emphasize achievement, parents who were high school dropouts, parents who are on involved, parents to react with anger and punishment to low grades, single parents, low income

School and community: large and unstimulating classes, lack of opportunity to form personal relationships with teachers, curriculum a relevant to students interests and needs, school authority structure that emphasizes the teacher and discourages student input, large student body

72

Describe the school experiences of academically marginal students who drop out

Grade retention which marks them as academic failures, large in personal schools, and classes with unsupportive teachers and few opportunities for active participation

73

List four strategies to prevent school drop out

Remedial instruction and counseling that offers personalized attention

High-quality vocational education: integrates academic and job-related instruction so students can see the relevance of what happens in the classroom to their future goals

Efforts to address the many factors in students lives related to leaving school early

Participation in extracurricular activities

74

Over the second half of the 20th century, the percentage of American adolescents completing high school has increased/decreased steadily

Increased. From less than 50% to just over 90%

75

True or false: about one third of high school dropouts eventually return to finish their secondary education

True

76

A phase of vocational development that occurs in early and middle childhood where children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them. Their preferences, guided largely by familiarity, glamour, and excitement, usually bear little relation to the decisions they will eventually make

The fantasy period

77

The phase of vocational development that occurs between ages 11 and 16 where adolescents think about careers in more complex ways, at first in terms of their interests, and soon-as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations-in terms of their abilities and values

The tentative period

78

The phase of vocational development that occurs by the late teens and early 20s, where, with the economic and practical realities of adulthood just around the corner, young people start to narrow their options. A first step is often further exploration-gathering more information about possibilities that blend with their personal characteristics. In the final phase, crystallization, they focus on a general vocational category an experiment for time before settling on a single occupation

The realistic period

79

Personality types that affect vocational choice. This person enjoys working with ideas and is likely to select a scientific occupation. For example, anthropologist, physicist, or engineer

The investigative person

80

Personality types that affect vocational choice. A person who likes interacting with people and gravitates toward human services such as counseling, social work, or teaching

The social person

81

Personality types that affect vocational choice. A person who prefers real world problems and work with objects and who tends to choose a mechanical occupation such as construction, plumbing, or surveying

The realistic person

82

Personality types that affect vocational choice. A person who is emotional and high in need for individual expression, looks toward an artistic field such as writing, music, or the visual arts

The artistic person

83

Personality types that affect vocational choice. A person who likes well structured tasks and values material possessions and social status, has traits well-suited to certain business fields such as accounting, banking, or quality control

The conventional person

84

Personality types that affect vocational choice. A person who is adventurous, persuasive, and a strong leader, is drawn to sales and supervisory positions or to politics

The enterprising person

85

The relationship between personality and vocational choice is weak/moderate/strong

Moderate. Many people are blends of several personality types and can do well at more than one kind of occupation

86

Identify three reasons why young people's vocational aspirations correlate strongly with their parents jobs

Teenagers from higher-SES homes are more likely to select high status, white-collar occupations such as doctor, lawyer, scientist, or engineer

Those with lower-SES backgrounds tend to choose less per Stege us, blue-collar careers such as plumbers, construction worker, food-service employee, or office worker

Partly a function of similarity in personality, intellectual abilities, and especially educational attainment

87

Explain how teachers influence adolescents career decisions

High school students who say that most of their teachers are caring and accessible, interested in their future, and expect them to work hard feel more confident about using a personally suitable career and succeeding at it.

88

Women's progress in entering and excelling at male-dominated profession has been slow/rapid

Slow

89

True or false: sex differences in vocational achievement can be directly attributed to differences in ability. Explain your answer

false. Girls are advantaged in reading and writing achievement, and the gender gap favoring boys in math this mall. Rather, gender stereotype messages plié key role. Although girls earn higher grades than boys, they reach secondary school less confident of their abilities, more likely to underestimate their achievement, and less like he to express interest in math and science

90

What are two ways in which girls can be encouraged to maintain high career aspirations?

Programs that sensitize parents, teachers, and school counselors to the special problems girls face in developing and maintaining high career aspirations and selecting nontraditional careers

Models of high achieving women

91

Non-college-bound high school graduates have more/fewer work opportunities than they did several decades ago

Fewer

92

Describe the nature of most jobs held by adolescents, and discuss the impact of heavy job commitment on adolescents attitudes and behaviors

Typically hold jobs that involve low level, repetitive tasks and provide little contact with adult supervisors. Have a commitment to such jobs is harmful-the more our students work, the poor their school attendance, the lower their grades, the less likely they are to participate in extracurricular activities, and the more likely they are to drop out. They also tend to feel more distant from their parents and report more drug and alcohol use and delinquent acts

93

Briefly summarize the features of Germany's work-study apprenticeship system, noting how it creates a smooth transition from school to work

After completing full-time schooling at age 15 or 16, they spend the remaining two years of compulsory education combining part-time vocational courses with an apprenticeship that is jointly planned by educators and employers. Students training work settings for more than 350 blue and white collar occupations. Apprentices who complete the program and pass a qualifying examination or certified as skilled workers andern union set wages. Businesses provide financial support because they know that the program guarantees a competent dedicated workforce and many apprentices are hired into well-paid job by the firms that trained them

Helps young people establish productive lives right after graduation, motivating at risk youth to stay in school, and contributing to the nation's economic growth

94

Identify three major challenges to the implementation of a national apprenticeship program in United States

Overcoming the reluctance of employers to assume part of the responsibility for vocational training, ensuring cooperation between schools and businesses, and preventing low-SES youths from being concentrated in the lowest-skilled apprenticeship placements

95

what is the basic difference between concrete and formal operational reasoning

In the formal operational stage, children develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking

Where is concrete operational children can operate on reality, formal operational adolescence can operate on operations. They no longer require concrete things or events as objects of thought. Instead, they can come up with new, more general logical rules through internal reflection