Flashcards in Chapter 16 Lab Deck (34)
What is the purpose of the Urinary system?
Rid body of waste products. Can poison organism if not eliminated
How is the urinary system closely associated with the Reproductive system?
- Shared embryonic development
- together termed urogenital system
What are the 6 principle organs of the urinary system?
2 Kidneys and 2 Ureters
Urinary Bladder and Urethra
Where do the kidneys lie?
Against posterior abdominal wall. Level of vertebrae T12 to L3
Which Kidney is slightly lower?
The right kidney
What do the kidney surfaces have?
lateral surface concave and medial surface convex (with slit, hylum; receives blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and ureter
What is the perirenal fat capsule?
Thick layer of adipose tissue, which cushions kidney and holds it in place
What is the fibrous capsule?
Forms the outer layer of the kidney
What is the kidney Parenchyma?
Glandular, urine-forming tissue. C-Shaped,
What is the outer rind and the inner tissue of the Parenchyma called?
Renal cortex --> Outer rind
Renal medulla --> Inner tissue
The Renal Medulla is divided into cones called ________?
The Pyramid and the overlying cortex make up the _________?
Kidneys receive what percentage of cardiac output?
What are Afferent Arterioles?
Lateral branches of cortical radiate arteries. Each supplies one functional unit of kidney --> nephron
What are the Efferent Arterioles?
How blood leaves the nephron
The Renal vein exits kidney at _______?
What are Nephrons?
- Functional units of kidney
- Where plasma is filtered and processed to form urine.
Nephrons are made up of 2 parts, what are they?
1) Renal Corpuscle --> Filters the blood plasma
2) Renal Tubule --> Converts filtrate to urine
The renal corpuscle is composed of what?
Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
What is the Bowman's corpuscle made up of?
- Simple Squamous Epithelium
- Inner layer of Podocytes
- Layers separated by capsular space, collecting filtrate
What is the renal tubule?
Duct leading away from Bowman's Capsule. Ends at top of renal pyramid and divided into 4 regions
What is the Proximal Convoluted Tubule?
Arises from Bowman's capsule and is longest and most coiled
What is the Loop of Henle?
- Found mostly in medulla. Begins where Proximal convoluted tubule dips toward the medulla and turns 180 degrees which returns to cortex.
What is the Distal Convoluted Tubule?
Begins shortly after ascending limb enters cortex. Shorter and less coiled that the PCT. is the end of the nephron
What is the collecting duct?
Receives fluid from DCT's of several nephrons. Passes through the cortex, descends in to the medulla and converges toward apex of renal pyramid. Ends in pores at tips of papilla
What is the Flow of Fluid
Bowman's capsule --> PCT --> nephron loop --> DCT --> collecting duct --> Minor Calyx --> Major Calyx --> Ureter --> Urinary Bladder --> Urethra
What are Ureters?
Place where urine is funneled by the renal pelvis.
- Extends to urinary bladder
- Pass posterior to bladder and enter from below
- Flap of mucosa as valve at opening (prevents urine backing up into ureter)
What is the Urinary Bladder?
- Muscular sac at the floor of pelvic cavity
What is the muscle layer of The urinary bladder called?
Detrusor --> consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle.
What is the Trigone?
- Smooth triangular area on bladder floor
- marked by opening of 2 ureters and urethra.
- Common site of bladder infection
What does the urethra do?
Conveys urine from bladder to external urethral orifice (point of exit from the body)
What is the size of the Urethra in Females?
3-4 cm long
How long in the urethra in Males?
18 cm long