Chapter 16 Lab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Lab Deck (34)
1

What is the purpose of the Urinary system?

Rid body of waste products. Can poison organism if not eliminated

2

How is the urinary system closely associated with the Reproductive system?

- Shared embryonic development

- together termed urogenital system

3

What are the 6 principle organs of the urinary system?

2 Kidneys and 2 Ureters

Urinary Bladder and Urethra

4

Where do the kidneys lie?

Against posterior abdominal wall. Level of vertebrae T12 to L3

5

Which Kidney is slightly lower?

The right kidney

6

What do the kidney surfaces have?

lateral surface concave and medial surface convex (with slit, hylum; receives blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and ureter

7

What is the perirenal fat capsule?

Thick layer of adipose tissue, which cushions kidney and holds it in place

8

What is the fibrous capsule?

Forms the outer layer of the kidney

9

What is the kidney Parenchyma?

Glandular, urine-forming tissue. C-Shaped,

10

What is the outer rind and the inner tissue of the Parenchyma called?

Renal cortex --> Outer rind

Renal medulla --> Inner tissue

11

The Renal Medulla is divided into cones called ________?

Renal Pyramids

12

The Pyramid and the overlying cortex make up the _________?

Kidney Lobe

13

Kidneys receive what percentage of cardiac output?

21%

14

What are Afferent Arterioles?

Lateral branches of cortical radiate arteries. Each supplies one functional unit of kidney --> nephron

15

What are the Efferent Arterioles?

How blood leaves the nephron

16

The Renal vein exits kidney at _______?

Hilum

17

What are Nephrons?

- Functional units of kidney

- Where plasma is filtered and processed to form urine.

18

Nephrons are made up of 2 parts, what are they?

1) Renal Corpuscle --> Filters the blood plasma

2) Renal Tubule --> Converts filtrate to urine

19

The renal corpuscle is composed of what?

Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

20

What is the Bowman's corpuscle made up of?

- Simple Squamous Epithelium

- Inner layer of Podocytes

- Layers separated by capsular space, collecting filtrate

21

What is the renal tubule?

Duct leading away from Bowman's Capsule. Ends at top of renal pyramid and divided into 4 regions

22

What is the Proximal Convoluted Tubule?

Arises from Bowman's capsule and is longest and most coiled

23

What is the Loop of Henle?

- Found mostly in medulla. Begins where Proximal convoluted tubule dips toward the medulla and turns 180 degrees which returns to cortex.

24

What is the Distal Convoluted Tubule?

Begins shortly after ascending limb enters cortex. Shorter and less coiled that the PCT. is the end of the nephron

25

What is the collecting duct?

Receives fluid from DCT's of several nephrons. Passes through the cortex, descends in to the medulla and converges toward apex of renal pyramid. Ends in pores at tips of papilla

26

What is the Flow of Fluid

Bowman's capsule --> PCT --> nephron loop --> DCT --> collecting duct --> Minor Calyx --> Major Calyx --> Ureter --> Urinary Bladder --> Urethra

27

What are Ureters?

Place where urine is funneled by the renal pelvis.

- Extends to urinary bladder

- Pass posterior to bladder and enter from below

- Flap of mucosa as valve at opening (prevents urine backing up into ureter)

28

What is the Urinary Bladder?

- Muscular sac at the floor of pelvic cavity

29

What is the muscle layer of The urinary bladder called?

Detrusor --> consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle.

30

What is the Trigone?

- Smooth triangular area on bladder floor

- marked by opening of 2 ureters and urethra.

- Common site of bladder infection

31

What does the urethra do?

Conveys urine from bladder to external urethral orifice (point of exit from the body)

32

What is the size of the Urethra in Females?

3-4 cm long

33

How long in the urethra in Males?

18 cm long

34

What are the 2 Urethral Sphincters?

Internal --> Thickening of detrusor, compresses urethra, retains urine in bladder, under INVOLUNTARY control

External --> skeletal muscle encircling urethra. Where urethra passes through pelvic floor, and provides voluntary control over voiding.