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Flashcards in chapter 16 textbook Deck (31):
1

psychoanalysis

freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transference - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight

2

resistance

in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

3

interpretation

in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream and meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviours and events in order to promote insight

4

transference

in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

5

psychodynamic therapy

therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; view individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and seeks to enhance self-insight

6

insight therapies

a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses --> help individuals discover what guides their motivation and behaviour

7

client-centered therapy

a humanistic therapy, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth

8

active listening

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy

9

unconditional positive regard

a caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which carl rogers believed would help clients develop self-awareness and self-acceptance

10

behaviour therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviours

11

counterconditioning

behaviour therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviour include: exposure therapies and aversive conditioning

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exposure therapies

behavioural techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid

13

systematic desensitization

a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias

14

virtual reality exposure therapy

an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking

15

aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behaviour (such as drinking alcohol)

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cognitive therapy

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

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cognitive-behavioural therapy

a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking ) with behaviour therapy (changing behaviour)

18

family therapy

therapy that treats family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviours as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

19

what sorts of problems does cognitive-behavioral theory best address?

anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, deptression, bipolar disorders, and eating disorders

20

meta-analysis

a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

21

evidence-based practice

clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
1. research evidence
2. clinical expertise
3. knowledge of the patient

22

therapeutic alliance

a bond of trust and mutual understanding between a therapist and client, who work together constructively to overcome the client's problem

23

psychopharmacology

the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behaviour

24

antipsychotic drugs

drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder

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antianxiety drugs

drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

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antidepressant drugs

drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and PTSD. (serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

27

electroconvulsive therapy

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

28

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

29

psychosurgery

surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behaviour

30

lobotomy

a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cuts the nerves connecting the frontal lobes the the emotion-controlling centres of the inner brain

31

posttraumatic growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crisis