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Flashcards in chapter 17 - Deck (88)
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1

Laboratory tests may not identify parasites if?

The parasite burden is low
The female is not actively producing eggs
There is no detectable stages that can be observed

2

Feces should be _______ and should not be older than _____ hours.

Fresh, 24 hours

3

Refrigerate feces to prevent ___ from _____, ___ from ___, or ____ from _____.

eggs - larvating
oocysts - sporulating
larva - changing

4

When taking a fecal sample from a group, ___ pooled sample per group is used.

one

5

Where should laboratory results get recorded?

In patient's medical record and in central laboratory result or log book

6

What is the central log book used for?

a backup to make sure tests are run, if the results are not in the book or patients record, they did not get run

7

What about the feces should be recorded in the central laboratory record book, as well as the animal's medical record?

color (black - digested) (red - blood)
consistency
presence of blood
gross parasites
presence of mucus

8

What should parasites be identified by?

genus and species so the vet can use proper control and treatment measures

9

Aged feces may contain what?

pseudoparasites picked up from the environment or nonparasitic larvae from flies that have grown after defecation occurred

10

What type of microscopes are used for proper identification of a parasite's larvae, eggs and oocysts?

compound microscope with 4X, 10X, and 40X objectives

11

Microscopes with calibrated eyepieces should be calibrated for what?

each objective for accurately measuring parasite larvae, ova, or oocysts

12

What is the calibration used for?

to measure the hatch marks on the ocular micrometer int he eyepiece.

13

When is the calibration done on the objective?

it is done at each objective power recorded and affixed to the microscope for future reference

14

What is the simplest method of microscopic fecal examination for parasites?

the direct smear

15

What is the direct smear?

a good diagnostic test for viewing the motile forms of protozoans that might be destroyed by other methods

16

Fecal concentration methods are preferred for identifying parasites and oocysts in the feces because?

Larger volumes of feces are used making it more likely the developmental stages will be seen if present in the feces

17

Fecal floatation solutions with a specific gravity of 1.2 to 1.25 are used to?

"float" parasite ova, cysts, and larvae while the fecal material sinks to the bottom of the container

18

The fecal solutions of choice?

are sheather's sugar solution, sodium nitrate solution, sodium nitrate solution and zinc sulfate solution.

19

What does it depend on as to how many different types of eggs, larvae, and cysts are able to be floated?

the specific gravity of the solution

20

What is fecal centrifugation is?

the method of choice for fecal flotation to float a higher concentration of ova, cysts, and larvae, and cysts are able to be floated

21

When is fecal sedimentation test used?

it is more commonly used to test for trematodes eggs, which are heavier than other parasite eggs and thus do not float well

22

What does qualitative procedures tell you?

whether parasite ova or cysts are present in the fecal sample

23

What does quantitative procedures do?

provide the number of ova or cysts in one gram of feces

24

What are quantitative procedures used for?

they are used more often in research facilities than in the vet clinic

25

What do Giardia trophozoites do in a fecal smear?

they swim in a jerky motion

26

What can be used to stain protozoan cysts on a direct smear?

modified D'Antoni's iodine or Lugol's iodine

27

What does cystoisospora species have when sporulated?

two sporocysts

28

What does Eimeria species have when sporulated?

four sporocysts

29

Cultured and identification of Nematode larvae are often referred to?

state or private diagnostic laboratories

30

Can parasites be preserved and stored for future analysis?

yes, the preservation technique will depend on the type of parasite