Chapter 17 (Blood) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 (Blood) Deck (52):
1

What are 3 charachteristics of blood?

Sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste

2

What is the color of blood? And what does it mean?

Scarlet (oxygen-rich) to dark red (oxygen-poor)

3

Is blood temperature higher or lower than body temperature?

Higher

4

What percentage body weight does blood consume?

8%

5

What is the average blood volume for males?

5-6 liters

6

What is the average blood volumes for females?

4-5 liters

7

Name 3 functions of blood

substance distribution, regulation of blood levels of particular substance, and body protection

8

Name a few things that blood transports

Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract, metabolic wastes from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination, hormones from endocrine glands to target organs

9

Name 3 things blood maintains

appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat, normal ph in the body tissues using buffer systems, adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system

10

How does blood prevent its own loss?

Activating plasma protiens and platelets, initiating clot formation when a vessel is broken

11

How does blood prevent infection?

Synthesizing and ultilizing antibodies, activating complement protiens, activating WBC's to defend body against foreign invaders

12

Whats another name for Erythrocytes?

Red blood cells

13

Whats another name for red blood cells?

Erythrocytes

14

Whats another name for Leukocytes?

White blood cells

15

Whats another name for whire blood cells?

Leukocytes

16

What is the percentage of red blood cells out of the total blood volume?

Hematocrit

17

What is Hematocrit?

The percentage of red blood cells out of total blood volume

18

In composition of blood what are some of the formed elements?

Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets

19

Name 5 blood plasma solutes

Protiens, non-protien nitrogenous substances, organic nutrients, electrolytes, and respiratory gasas

20

Name 3 protiens of the blood plasma

albumin, globulins, and clotting protiens

21

Name 3 non-protein nitrogenous substances of the blood plasma

lactic acid, urea, and creatinine

22

Name 3 organic nutrients of the blood plasma

glucose, carbohydrates, and amino acids

23

Name 5 electrolytes of the blood plasma

Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Chloride, Bicarbonate

24

Name 3 respiratory gases of the blood plasma

oxygen and carbon dioxide

25

Name 3 things blood maintains

appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat, normal ph in the body tissues using buffer systems, adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system

26

Which of the blood cells are the only complete cells?

WBC (white blood cells)

27

Which blood cells have no nuclei or organelles?

RBC (Red blood cells)

28

In reference to formed elements what are platelets?

Just cell fragments

29

How long do formed elements survive in the blood stream?

Only a few days

30

Where are blood cells renewed?

Bone marrow

31

What is the structural composition of Erythrocytes?

(RBC) Biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles,

32

What are erythrocytes dedicated to?

Repiratory gas transport

33

What are Erythrocytes filled with?

Hemoglobin (Hb), a protein that functions in gas transport

34

What percentage of Erythrocytes are hemoglobin?

97%

35

In Erythrocytes how is ATP generated?

anaerobically (without oxygen)

36

In erythocytes what is the hemoglobin function?

reversible binds with oxygen and most oxygen in the blood is bound to hemoglobin

37

What is Hemoglobin composed of?

Globin, Heme group

38

What is globin composed of?

protien made up of 4 chains, 2 alpha and 2 beta

39

How much oxygen can 1 hemoglobin transport?

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport 4 molecules of oxygen

40

In the heme group what atom does it bear?

Each heme group bears an Iron atom which can bind to one oxygen molecule

41

Where is oxyhemoglobin found?

In the arteries

42

Define oxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin bound to oxygen

43

Where is deoxyhemolobin found?

Lungs and Capillary beds

44

Define Deoxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin after oxygen diffuses into tissues (reduces Hb) (only deoxyshore white)

45

Define Carbaminohemoglobin

hemoglobin bound to carbon dioxide

46

Where is Carbaminohemoglobin found?

Found in veins

47

What does hemato refer to?

blood

48

Where does hematopoiesis occur?

Red bone marrow of the axial skeleton and girdles epiphyses of the humerus and femur

49

What is Hematopoiesis?

blood cell formation

50

What are hemocytoblsts?

Stem cells

51

What do hemocytoblasts give rise to?

they give rise to all formed elements

52

What does arthro stand for?

Red blood cells