Chapter 18 (Heart) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 (Heart) Deck (104):
1

How big is your heart?

App. the size of your fist

2

What is the pericardium?

a double-walled sac around the heart composed of several layers

3

What is the function of the fibrous pericardium?

Protection, anchoring, prevents overfilling of heart with blood

4

What does the parietal layer of the heart line?

The internal surface of the fibrous pericardium

5

What does the viseral layer (aka epicardium) line?

The surface of the heart

6

What seperates the parietal and viceral layers of the heart?

Fluid filled pericardial cavity

7

What is the function of serous fluid?

It helps provide a friction free enviroment

8

What is the epicardium?

Visceral layer of the serous pericardium

9

What is the myocardium?

Cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart

10

What is the endocardium?

The endotheilial layer of the inner myocardial surface

11

What does the prefix myo- usually represent?

muscle

12

When you think of coronary which organ do you usually think of?

Heart

13

The atria are the what of the heart?

The recieving chambers

14

Arteries take things _________ from the heart.

away

15

Veins take things __________ the heart.

to

16

Each atrium has a protruding___________?

auricle

17

______________ mark atrial walls.

Pectinate muscles

18

Where does the blood enter the right atria?

From the superior and inferior venae cavae and coronary sinus.

19

Where does the blood enter the left atria from?

The pulmonary veins

20

The ventricles are the _____ of the heart.

Discharging chambers

21

Which two muscles mark ventricular walls?

Papillary and trabeculae carnae muscles

22

The right ventricle pumps blood into ____?

Pulmonary trunk

23

The left ventricle pumps blood into the _____ ?

Aorta

24

Heart valves ensure ______ blood flow through the heart.

Unidirectional

25

_______ valves lie between the atria and the ventricles

(AV) Atrioventricular

26

_____ valves prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract.

(AV) atrioventricular

27

_________anchor AV valves to papillary muscles

Chordae tendineae

28

________valve lies between the left ventricle and the aorta

Aortic semilunar

29

________valve lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary semilunar

30

Semilunar valves prevent ____ of blood into the ventricles.

Semilunar valves prevent ____ of blood into the ventricles.

31

What are some of the things that you will see when you look at a cardiac muscle?

The cardiac muscle is short, branched, fat, and interconnected

32

______ anchor cardiac cells together

intercalated discs

33

The mitochondria in the heart make it ___?

Fatigue resistant

34

Where are autorhythmic cells located?

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

35

What do autorythmic cells do to action potentials?

They initiate them

36

What do autorythmic cells use for rising phase of the action potential

Calcium influx

37

At what rate does the (SA Sinoatrial node) generate impulses?

About 75 times a minute

38

At what rate does the Atrioventicular (av node) delay the impulse?

App. 0.1 second

39

Impulse passes from the atria to ventricles via _____?

Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of his).

40

Av bundle branches carrty the impulse ___ the apex of the heart

toward

41

Purkinje fibers carry the impulse ___ heart apex and ventricular walls

to the

42

The heart is ______ by the sympathetic cardiovasular center

stimulated (speed up)

43

The heart is ______ by the parasympathetic cardioinhibitory center

inhibited (slow down)

44

The P wave corresponds to ____ of SA node

depolorization

45

QRS complex corresponds to ventricular _____

depolarization

46

T wave corresponds to ventricular ______

replolarization/resting

47

The atrial repolarization record is masked by the larger _____ complex.

QRS

48

Heart sounds (lub-dub) are associated with ____ of heart sounds

closing

49

The 'lub' first heart sound occurs as AV valves close and signifies _____ of systole

begining

50

The dub the second heart sound occurs when the SL valves____ at the beginning of ventricular diastole

close

51

Cardiac cycle refers to all events associated with blood flow _____ the heart

through

52

What is systole?

Contraction of the heart

53

What is diastole?

Relaxation of the heart

54

What is the first stage of the cardiac cycle?

Ventricular filling

55

When does ventricular filling occur?

Mid-to-late diastole

56

During ventricular filling Heart blood pressure is low as blood enters the ____ and flows into the ventricles

atria

57

During ventricular filling AV valves are open, then ______ occurs

atrial systol

58

What is the second stage of the cardiac cycle?

Ventricular systole

59

What does the atria do during ventricular systole?

relax

60

In the second stage of the cardiac cycle rising ventricular pressure results in ___ of the av valves

closing

61

When referencing diastole what should you always think of ?

ventricles

62

What is the 3rd stage of the cardiac cycle?

The ventricular ejection phase

63

What is cardiac output?

It's the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute

64

CO is the produve of _____ and _____.

Heart rate and stroke volume

65

What is heart rate?

The number of heart beats per minute

66

What is SV?

Stroke volume the amound of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat

67

What is cardiac reserve?

Its the difference between resting and maximal CO

68

What is the preload?

the amount venticles are stretched by contained blood

69

Anything that increases _____ increases edv and thus SV

Venous return

70

Blood loss and extremely rapid heartbeat ___ SV

decrease

71

What is afterload?

Afterload is the back pressure exerted by blood in the large arteries leaving the heart

72

When is afterload an issue?

Individuals with hypertension

73

What does hypertension reduce the ability to do?

reduces the ability of the ventricles to eject blood

74

What is contractility?

its the increase in contractile strength, independent of stretch and EDV

75

What does contractililty result in?

It results in greater amount of blood being pumped

76

What are some things that increase SV?

increased sympathetic stimuli, certain hormones, calcium and some drugs

77

What are some things that decrease Sv?

Acidosis, increased extracellular potassium, and calcium channel blockers

78

When you think of chrono what should you always think of?

Time

79

What are positive chronotropic factors?

Factors that increase the heart rate

80

What are negative chronotropic factors?

factors that decrease the heart rate

81

What are some of things that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system?

stress, anxiety, excitement, or excersise

82

What are some of the things that mediate the parasympathetic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

83

What opposes the SNS?

The SNS

84

Which of the nervous symptoms dominates autonomic stimulation

PNS

85

Pns dominates the autonomis stimulation, slowing heart rate and causing _____?

Vagal tone

86

What is the atrial (Bainbridge) reflux?

a sympatheic reflux initiated by increased blood in the atria (venous return)

87

How does the atrial reflex increase heart rate and force of contraction by____?

causing stimulation of the SA node, stimulating baroreceptors in the atria, causing increased sns stimulation

88

What are two hormones that increase heart rate?

Epinephrine and thyroxine

89

What does hypocalcemia do to the heart?

depresses heart rate

90

What does hypercalcemia do to the heart?

causes erratic heart rates

91

What does hypernatremia do to the heart?

blocks heart contraction

92

What does hyperkalemia do to the heart?

lowers resting membrane potential (may lead to heart block and cardiac arrest)

93

What does hypokalemia do to the heart?

heart beats feeble and arrhythmically

94

When a baby is born and the umbilical cord is cut, what structures change in the heart to dicontinue the bypass system?

The foramen ovale connets the two atria and the ductus arteriosus connects the pumonary trunk and the aorta

95

Name the 3 bullet points on the Ventricular filling

diastole, av valves are open, and the semi-lunar is closed, atrial systole

96

Name the 2 bullet points on the isovolumetric contractoin

all valves are closed systole

97

Name the 2 bullet points on the ventricular ejection

systole, semilunar valves are open and the av valves are closed

98

name the 2 bullet points on the isocolumetric relaxation

all valves are closed, diastole

99

What does the acyromym LAB RAT stand for?

Left atrium bicuspid, and right atrium tricuspid

100

What are the two types of cardiac muscle cells?

normal cardiac muscle and automatic/autorythmic cells

101

What are normal cardiac muscles stimulated by?

Influx of calcium

102

How do automatic/autorythmic cells work?

They use a calcium influx rather than sodium for the rising phase of the ap

103

The SA node is known as what?

your pacemaker

104

Influx of Calcium causes a ___ in the action potential.

plateau