Chapter 25 and 26 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 and 26 Deck (32):
1

How many essential fatty acids are there?

2 Linoleic and linolenic

2

How many amino acids are there and how many of those are essential?

20 amino acids 8 that are essential

3

Anything that is essential must be acuired through __________________?

one's diet

4

What do complete protiens contain ?

All 20 amino acids

5

What are some examples of complete proteins?

Milk, dairy, and eggs

6

Incomplete proteins do not contain what?

All 20 amino acids

7

What are some examples of incomplete protiens?

Legumes (beans), nuts, vegtables and grains

8

What are 4 things that cholesterol is needed for production for?

All cell membranes, estrogen&Testerone, all mylen sheaths, bile

9

HDL's are thought to help prevent what?

heart attacks

10

LDL's are thought to increase the risk of ____?

Heart attacks

11

What is the definition of metabolism?

summ of all chemial reactions in the body

12

What is the definition of anabolism?

chemical reactions in which bonds are made (requires energy) building

13

What is the definition of catabolism?

chemical reactions in which bonds are broken (releases energy) breaking down

14

What is the definition of glycogenolysis?

The breakdown of glycogen into glucose

15

What is the definition of glycogenesis?

the formation of glycogen from glucose

16

What is the definition of gluconeogenesis?

the formation of glycogen from non-carbohydrate sources (lipids and protiens)

17

What is ICF?

Intracellular fluid (inside the cell)

18

What is ECF?

Extracellular fluid (outside the cell)

19

What are the 3 main compartments of iCF and ECF?

interstitial fluid-fluid between the cells, plasma-in the blood, lymph-returns fluid back to the blood

20

What are 4 things aldosterone is released as a result of?

low na,high k, low blood pressure, low blood pressure

21

Renin is released in response to ___? And causes the production of __________?

Low blood pressure and angiotensin 2

22

Angiotensin 2 causes ______ and the release of __________&_____________.

vasoconstriction and ADH and aldosterone

23

What are 3 things that increase fluid loss?

increased BP, increased capillary permeability, and CHF

24

Name everything you know about whater intoxication....

ECF is diluted na levels are normal but there is too much water, hyponatremia-causes osmosis water moves into cells causing swelling and bursting causes major problems with nerves and heart

25

Where is the thirst center located?

The hypothalmus

26

Name 3 reasons that the thirst center is activated....

Blood volume decreases, blood na/osmolality increases, BP drops

27

What are the functions of "the big 3" elecrtolytes?

na/k-nervous and muscle and heart contraction ca-bone,teeth, blood clotting and muscle and heart contraction

28

What solutes are found inside of the cell?

k and phosphates

29

What solutes are found outside the cell?

na and cl

30

What are 2 fluid pressures and what do you need to know about them?

hydrostatic pressure-aka bp forces fluid out of a capillary at the arterial end of a capillary colloid osmotic pressure due to proteins in the blood & electrolytes in the interstitial spaces it forces fluid back into the blood at the venous end of a capillay bed

31

Name the 3 chemical buffers and where they are important....

bicarbonate buffer-important in blood , phosphate buffer-important in urine and ICF, plasma protiens-important in blood

32

How do the kidneys regulate acid/basae balance?

They reabsorb and generate hco3 and secrete H