Flashcards in Chapter 25 and 26 Deck (32):
How many essential fatty acids are there?
2 Linoleic and linolenic
How many amino acids are there and how many of those are essential?
20 amino acids 8 that are essential
Anything that is essential must be acuired through __________________?
What do complete protiens contain ?
All 20 amino acids
What are some examples of complete proteins?
Milk, dairy, and eggs
Incomplete proteins do not contain what?
All 20 amino acids
What are some examples of incomplete protiens?
Legumes (beans), nuts, vegtables and grains
What are 4 things that cholesterol is needed for production for?
All cell membranes, estrogen&Testerone, all mylen sheaths, bile
HDL's are thought to help prevent what?
LDL's are thought to increase the risk of ____?
What is the definition of metabolism?
summ of all chemial reactions in the body
What is the definition of anabolism?
chemical reactions in which bonds are made (requires energy) building
What is the definition of catabolism?
chemical reactions in which bonds are broken (releases energy) breaking down
What is the definition of glycogenolysis?
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose
What is the definition of glycogenesis?
the formation of glycogen from glucose
What is the definition of gluconeogenesis?
the formation of glycogen from non-carbohydrate sources (lipids and protiens)
What is ICF?
Intracellular fluid (inside the cell)
What is ECF?
Extracellular fluid (outside the cell)
What are the 3 main compartments of iCF and ECF?
interstitial fluid-fluid between the cells, plasma-in the blood, lymph-returns fluid back to the blood
What are 4 things aldosterone is released as a result of?
low na,high k, low blood pressure, low blood pressure
Renin is released in response to ___? And causes the production of __________?
Low blood pressure and angiotensin 2
Angiotensin 2 causes ______ and the release of __________&_____________.
vasoconstriction and ADH and aldosterone
What are 3 things that increase fluid loss?
increased BP, increased capillary permeability, and CHF
Name everything you know about whater intoxication....
ECF is diluted na levels are normal but there is too much water, hyponatremia-causes osmosis water moves into cells causing swelling and bursting causes major problems with nerves and heart
Where is the thirst center located?
Name 3 reasons that the thirst center is activated....
Blood volume decreases, blood na/osmolality increases, BP drops
What are the functions of "the big 3" elecrtolytes?
na/k-nervous and muscle and heart contraction ca-bone,teeth, blood clotting and muscle and heart contraction
What solutes are found inside of the cell?
k and phosphates
What solutes are found outside the cell?
na and cl
What are 2 fluid pressures and what do you need to know about them?
hydrostatic pressure-aka bp forces fluid out of a capillary at the arterial end of a capillary colloid osmotic pressure due to proteins in the blood & electrolytes in the interstitial spaces it forces fluid back into the blood at the venous end of a capillay bed
Name the 3 chemical buffers and where they are important....
bicarbonate buffer-important in blood , phosphate buffer-important in urine and ICF, plasma protiens-important in blood