Chapter 18 - Lime, Portland Cement & Concrete Flashcards Preview

Construction > Chapter 18 - Lime, Portland Cement & Concrete > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Lime, Portland Cement & Concrete Deck (68)
Loading flashcards...

Historical Background of Lime, Portland Cement & Concrete

- Until the middle of the 19th century, lime was the only cement available for use in masonry mortar, plaster, and concrete (whereas now, it is only a small component in mortar, stucco, whitewash, and soil stabilization).

- Portland Cement replaced lime in most usage and is the main ingredient in concrete


Thermal Properties of Quicklime

- 1 Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 LB of water 1 degree F

- 1 lb of hydrated quicklime creates 450 Btu

- 450 Btus will raise the temp of 3.2 lb of water from 70 F to 212 F


Scumbag Uses of Quicklime

- British soldiers used quiklime in the war of 1217 by throwing it in thier faces to incapacitate them

- Criminals misused quicklime to dispose of bodies by buring them in quicklime and hydrated soil


What are Lime-Sand Mortars? 

When were they primarily used?

- A mortar where lime is a cement (binder) and sand is the filler

- Lime-Sand Mortars were used for thousands of years in masonry mortars (historic european buildings  & Egyptian Pyramids). 

- Lime-Sand Mortars were the only masonry morater until the advent of portland cement


What is lime made from

Limestone (aka calcium carbonate), the most abundant rocks on Earth's crust

Sedimentary rock

Limestone, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms; trilobytes, coral, forams and molluscs. 


Chemical name for Limestone

Calcium carbonate


The process of creating lime from limestone


Crushing limestone (calcium carbonate) into 2" rocks and heating to 1,800 deg F.

This endothermic reaction (ie heat is required to make it happen) of calcuim carbonate expels the carbon dioxide leaving carbon oxide (aka lime/quicklime)


Calcium Hydroxide

- Ca(OH)2

- The mixture of quicklime (calcium oxide: CaO) with water (dihydrogen monoxide: H20)

- Also called hydrated lime/slaked lime

- The mixture creates an exothermic reaction (ie heat is produced during the reaction)



Calcium Oxide

A casutic substance

reacts with water to create calcium hydrate (aka hydrated lime/slaked lime)


Packaging Of Hydrated Lime

- Hydrated Lime is generally used in powder form

- Created by hydrating quicklime (whose amount of water used to hydrate is much greater than needed for hydration reaction. Therefore, after hydration reaction, quicklime needs to evaporate/dry excess moisture). Allow to dry

- Crush in powder and package


What is this substance in concrete

Hydrated Lime/Quicklime


Carbonation Of Lime

The hardening property of lime results from its ability to react with atmospheric carbon dioxide to create calcium carbonate.

Thus, the chemical reaction between lime with carbon dioxide returns lime it to its parent material, limestone



Carbination of masonry mortar

As the atmospheric carbon dioxide begins to react with lime-sand mortar in a wall, it converts the exposed area of the mortar into a hardened carbonite crust. This crust hinders further penetration of carbon dioxide into the interior volume of the mortar.

Is a slow reaction in large part because CO2 is a small part of air (4%)

- The cemnintg propoerty is more to do with the absorbtion of water in mortar by masonry than simple hardening; as water evaporated and the mortar shrinks, it draws the units toward itself. The tiny pores, pits, ans crevices on the surface, which get filled with mortar, add to the lime's cementing property 


Who Discovered the Pozzolanic Reaction and what was the basics of what they found?

Discovered by Romans in 1st or 2nd centry BC;


Romans found that in addition to lime being hardened by CO2 (which was already known), if also mixed with volcanic ash, the mixture (via the reaction to the amorphous silica), when used with sand and water, gave a mortar that set more quickly, was stronger, and more durrible than lime-sand mortar.


Amorphous Silica

Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

Noncrystiline ( ie. glassy)


What type of cement is created in the Pozzolanic Reaction? What are it's benefits?

mixing lime and volcanic ash with water produces a hydraulic cement, which is water resistant cement that does not disolve in water.


What is freelime and what does it do in water

Free lime is lime in absence of pozzolanic reaction.

It will gradualy disolive in water


What is the main ingredient in Volcanic Ash

microscopic silica (with a small percentage of microscopic alumina)


How is volcanic ash made?

- As volcanic lava jets out of the ground, the carbon in the rock and other organic matter is converted to carbon dioxide gas, which caries with it particles of rock that have melted and fused into glassy (amorphous) particles

- due to the pressure of the volcanic erupton, molten gas particles are converted to tiny beads of glass resulting in volcanic ash


What is most soil and rock made out of?

oxides of silicon and aluminum called silica and alumina


What is another name for Portland Cement and what gives volcanic ash its pozzolanic properties?

Pozzolanic matterial or simply pozzolana


It's both the microscopic size and amorphous nature of silica and alumina that give fly ash its pozzolanic prperties


Chemistry of Lime:


Calcination of Limestone

Limestone ---Heat---> lime + Carbon Dioxide

CaCO3 ---Heat---> CaO + CO2



Chemistry of Lime:


Hydration of Quicklime

Calcium Oxide + Water ----> Calcium Hydroxide + Heat

CaO + H2O ----> Ca(OH)2 + Heat 

Quicklime + Water  ----> Hydrated Lime (aka slaked lime) + Heat


Chemistry of Lime:


Carbonation of Hydrated Lime

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 ----> CaCO3 + H2O

Hydrated Lime + Carbon Dioxide ---> Calcium Carbonate + Water


Deffinition of Pozzolana

A meterial, when mixed with lime & water, converts the mixture into a hydraulic cement

Also, to qualify as pozzolana, the material must me extremly small (microscopic) and contain amorphious silica


What is a commonly used present pozzolana

fly ash


What is fly ash

A waste product from coal fired electricicity generating stations.


It is similar to volcanich ash, as it contains microscopic & amorphious silica


Size dirrerance between Fly Ash and Portland Cement Particles

Fly ash is less than 20  μm. 

Portland Cemelt is  45 μm




Millionth of a meter

0.001 mm


What is silica fume

 - A form of contemporary pozzolana

- A waste product from the silicon industry