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Project Delivery Phases

Predesign Phase
Design Phase
Preconstruction Phase
Construction Phase
Postconstruction Phase


Predesign Phase

aka Planning Phase
Project is defined in terms of function, purpose, scope, size and economics


Predesign Tasks

Building Program Definition - activities functions and spaces required in the building, along with their approximate size and relationships with each other

Economic Feasibility Assessment - budget and financing

Site Assessment & Selection

Governmental Constraints Assessment

Design Team Selection


Design Phase

- Begins with the selection of lead designer (typically the architect)
Schematic Design Stage
Design Development Stage
Construction Documents Stage


1st Design Phase - Schematic Design

Emphasis on Design (creative, conceptual, and innovative aspects of the design)
- Gives graphic shape to owner's program: Some elevations, plans, and sketches accompanied by models and computer generated walkthrough/imagery is produced
- limited consultant involvement
- Rough estimate of project's probable cost is produced


2nd Design Phase - Design Development

Emphasis on Decision Making
- Consultant involvement to make decisions on exterior envelope, MEPF, structure, etc
- Vast majority of decisions are made pertaining to products, equipment, and materials
- More detailed spec and drawings generated
- GC may be brought on board to provide input about cost and construtability


3rd Design Phase - Construction Doccuments

Emphasis on Documentation
- Prepare all docs required for construction; construction drawings and specifications
- Construction Drawings show the 'what' and 'where' of how a building is built to allow for the contractor to execute the 'how' and 'when'
- Specifications are the written technical description of the design. When assembled with all consultant, this may be referred to as the project manual.


CSI Masterformat

Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)
- Consists of 50 divisions; generally nubered by sequence of work
- Level 1 digits ( similar to chapters): 00 thru 49 - identify the broadest collection of related products and assemblies
- Level 2 digits (similar to section): further classify products and assemblies
- Level 3 digits (similar to subsections) - even further classifies products and assemblies


Preconstruction Phase

aka Bid negotiation phase
- Begins after the construction documents are complete and culminates in the selection of the construction teamm


Preconstrcution Phase - Selecting a Contractor

Several methods used, the four most common:

- Competitive bid method
- Invitation bid method
- Negotiated contract method
- Multiple prime contractor method


Preconstrcution Phase - Competitive bid method

- Used on most public projects
- qualified contractors (via experience and financial standing) are invited to bid (via ads, trade publications, newspapers, etc) on projects based on biding documents


Preconstrcution Phase - Invitational bid method

- Similar to competitive bid, but used for private projects


Preconstrcution Phase - Negotiated contract method

- Selecting a contractor without a bid process
- A major advantage of this method is that a contractor can be brought on board during the predesign or design phase and offer preconstruction services
- Most popular contract method for private work


Preconstrcution Phase - Multiple-prime contracts method

aka fast track project delivery
- a variation of the negotiated contract where a project is divides into multiple sequential phases and each phase is awarded to a different prime contractor


Surety Bonds

Surety bonds ensures that should a contractor fail to fulfill contractual obligations, there will be a financially sound party - the surety (aka the guarantor, aka the bonding company) - available to take over those unfulfilled obligations


Types of bonds: Bid, Performance and Payment

Bid Bond aka bid security bond - This bond is required when a bidder submits their bid and insures against frivolous bidders. It insures if selected, a contractor will be able to enter into a contract. If the bidder refuses to enter into the contract, a penalty (usually 5%) is paid to the owner

Performance Bond - Ensures, after the award of contract, that if a contractor cannot complete the contract that a surety will be able to. GCs will in turn require the same for major subcontractors.

Payment Bond aka labor and materials bond - ensures payment by subs and vendors will be paid by GC. Otherwise an owner could be held liable for non payment even if they have paid the GC


Pros and Cons of Bonds

Eliminate financial risk
Adds to bid price


Construction Phase

Commences once GC has been selected and the contract awarded. Construction documents are now contract documents, as they tie the owner and the contractor togeather


Construction Phase - Observation of Construction

- Architect provides 'field observation' which is periodic and ensures contractor is following contract docs
- Contractor is responsible for daily supervision and execution


Construction Phase - Observation of Construction - 'Failure to Detect'

Although a GC is fully liable for any error in construction, regardless if it was missed by their architect in their observations, the architect can be held liable for not providing timely notification of work not conforming to the contract documents.


Construction Phase - Inspection of Work

AOR transforms from observer to inspector generally twice in a project: at substantial completion and final completion


Summary of Architect's Typical Functions as Construction Contract Administrator

Observe Construction
Inform owner of progress of work
Guards owner against defects and deficiencies
Review and approve submittals
Prepare change orders, if required
Review correspondence between owner and contractor
Prepare certificates of payment
make substantial completion inspection
make final completion inspection
review close out doc submissions
make a judicious interpretation of the contract between owner and contractor


Postconstruction Phase

aka Project Closeout
- Commences once contractor requests a substantial completion inspection and passes AOR's inspection
- AOR generates a punchlist of incomplete corrective portions of the work
- Before obtaining a substantial completion, the contractor typically obtains a 'certificate of occupancy' form the authority having jurisdiction (usually the city where the permit was filed). The CofO confirms that all appropriate inspections and approvals have taken place and the contractor has demobilized and the owner can occupy the building without obligations to any authority


Certificate of Final Completion

Contractor completes the close out process and requests a final inspection from the architect. If the inspection passes the AOR issues a 'certificate of final completion' and the contractor is entitled to final payment.
The certificate transfers all liability of the site to the owner


Alternative Project Delivery Method - Construction Management Method (CM)

Owner retains a construction manager as an agent to advise on such aspects as costs, scheduling, site supervision, site safety, construction finance administration, and overall building construction
- CM is not a contractor and does not have an entrepreneurial role
- CM is often hired before anybody else
- There is no GC and the owner awards multiple contracts to various contractors who are them managed by the CM
- CM method is particularly attractive for knowledgeable owners


Alternative Project Delivery Method - Construction Management at Risk Method (CMAR)

- As the CM method has little risk for the CM and the CM does not have direct control of the prime contracts because the contract is directly with he owner, CM evolved into CMAR.
- Owner pays the CM separately as the CM (with a fee) and as the GC.
- CMAr works with AOR to develop the project that meets the owner's budget and needs, this acting as the owner's agent


Alternative Project Delivery Method - Design-Build Method (DB)

- Owner contracts one firm to design and build a project on a cost-plus or lump-sum basis
- Similar to a historic master-builder meathod
- Design-build firms are generally contractors with a design team
- Can lead to shorter projects, and less change orders
- 'turn-key' is a method where the design build team also arranges for land and finances for a project