Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

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Blood helps maintain homeostasis by

Transport gas, nutrients, waste
Transport molecules
Transport regulatory molecules
Regulation of pH and osmosis
Body temp
Protection
Clot formation

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Normal pH range of blood

7.35-7.45

2

Blood

Type of connective tissue consisting of a liquid matrix contains cells and cell fragments

3

Plasma and formed element percentages

55% plasma
45% formed elements
8% body weight

4

Plasma

91% water
9% other
Liquid part of blood

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Colloid

A liquid containing suspended substances that do not settle out of solution

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3 plasma proteins

Albumin
Globulins
Fibrinogen

7

Albumin

Maintains colloid osmotic pressure. Regulates movement of water between tissues and blood

8

Albumin transports

Fatty acids
Bilirubin
Thyroid hormones

9

Globulins

Transports substances, protection against microorganisms

10

Fibrinogen

Formation of blood clots

11

Serum

Plasma without clotting factors

12

Formed elements of blood

RBC, WBC, platelet

13

Hematopoiesis

Process of RBC production

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Hemocytoblasts

All formed elements of blood come from this stem cell

15

Myeloid stem cell

Proeryrthroblasts, myeloblasts, mono blasts, megakaryoblasts

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Proerythroblasts

Form RBC

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Myeloblasts

Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

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Monoblasts

Monocytes develop

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Megakaryoblasts

Platelets develop

20

Colony-stimulating factors

Signal development of formed elements. Also hormones

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Erythropoietin

Hormone secreted by endocrine cells of kidneys. Stimulates RBC production

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Hemoglobin

Pigmented protein. 1/3 cell volume and color

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Hemolysis

RBC rupture followed by hemoglobin release

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Carbonic anhydrase

Enzyme in RBC. CO2 + water creates H+ and bicarbonate ions

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Globin

Polypeptide chain. 4 in hemoglobin

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Heme

Red-pigmented molecule with iron

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Carbaminohemoglobin

Carbon dioxide attached to Globin molecule

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Carb oxyhemoglobin

Carbon monoxide binds to iron of hemoglobin

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Birth of RBC
Erythropoiesis

Hemocytoblasts
Myeloid stem cells
Proerythroblasts
Early erythroblasts
Intermediate erythroblasts
Late erythroblasts

30

Reticulocytes

Late erythroblasts lose nuclei by extrusion, become immature Reticulocytes

31

Required for RBC production

Folate, vitamin B 12, iron

32

Old Globin

Broken down into amino acids and reused

33

Old iron atoms

Sent to red bone marrow

34

Old heme

Bilirubin, plasma by albumin, liver, bike, brown poop

35

Jaundice

Yellowish staining of skin and sclerae of eyes caused by build up of bile pigments

36

Three types of granulocytes

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

37

Two types of agranulocytes

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

38

Ameboid movement

Putting out irregular cytoplasmic projections to move

39

Diapedesis

WBC leave circulation. Become thin and slip between or through blood vessel walls

40

Chemotaxis

WBC attracted to foreign materials or dead cells

41

Pus

Accumulation of dead WBC and bacteria, fluid, debris

42

Neutrophils

First responders. Bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes

43

Lysozymes

Secreted by neutrophils to kill certain bacteria

44

Eosinophils

Worm parasites. Inflammation, allergic reactions. Harmful in asthma. Destroy histamine

45

Basophils

Allergic and inflammatory responses. Large amount of histamine. Heparin (inhibits blood clotting)

46

Lymphocytes

B cells (antibodies)
T cells (viruses, tumors, tissue rejection)

47

Monocytes

Bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments, debris. Chronic infection

48

Platelets

Actin, myosin, connect to tissue.

49

Megakaryocytes

Break up and become platelets