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Pulmonary circulation

Right side of the heart

1

Systemic circulation

Left side of heart

2

Functions of the heart

Generating BP
Routing blood
One way blood flow
Regulating blood supply

3

Pericardium

Double-layered closed sac that surrounds the heart

4

Pericarditis

Inflammation of serous pericardium

5

Cardiac tamponade

Large volume of fluid or blood accumulates in pericardial cavity and compresses the heart from the outside

6

Fibrous pericardium

Tough, fibrous connective tissue outer layer

7

Serous pericardium

Thin, transparent inner layer

8

Function of fibrous pericardium

Prevents overdistension of heart and anchors it within mediastinum.

9

Parietal pericardium

Serous pericardium lining fibrous pericardium

10

Visceral pericardium

Serous lining that covering surface of heart

11

Pericardial cavity

Space between visceral and pericardia, filled with pericardial fluid

12

Function of pericardial fluid

Reduce friction as heart moves in pericardial sac

13

3 layers of heart wall

Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

14

Epicardium

Thin serous membrane. Smooth outer surface of heart

15

Myocardium

Thick, middle layer of heart. Cardiac muscle

16

Endocardium

Smooth, inner surface of the heart chambers

17

Pectinate muscles

Muscular ridges in auricles and right atrial wall

18

Crista terminalis

Ridge separate pectinate muscles from smooth atrial wall

19

Trabeculae carneae

Interior walls of ventricles. Large muscular ridges and columns

20

Auricles

Extensions of atria that be seen anteriorly between each atrium and ventricle

21

Superior and inferior vena cava

Carry blood to right atrium

22

Four pulmonary veins

Blood from lungs to left atrium

23

Two arteries that exit heart

Aorta, pulmonary trunk

24

Coronary sulcus

Runs obliquely around the heart, separates atria from ventricles

25

Anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus

Division between left and right ventricles

26

Right and left coronary arteries

Supply heart. Lie within coronary sulcus and interventricular sulci

27

Anastomoses

Direct connection between arteries of heart

28

Coronary sinus

Veins from heart itself drain into here, then right atrium

29

Right atrium openings

Superior/inferior vena cava and coronary sinus

30

Interatrial septum

Divides two atria

31

Fossa ovalis

Oval depression on right side of septum marking former location of foramen ovale

32

Foramen ovale

Opening between the right and left atria in the embryo and fetus

33

Papillary muscles

In both ventricles. Cone shaped muscular pillars

34

Chordate tendineae

Attached to papillary muscles and atrioventricular valves. Thin, strong connective tissues.

35

Function of papillary muscles

Contract when ventricles contract. Prevent valves from opening into atria by pulling on chordae tendineae.

36

Heart skeleton

Plate Of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles

37

Fibrous rings

Connective tissue plate forms fibrous rings around atrioventricular and semilunar valves.

38

Heart skeleton functions

Support, reinforce valve openings, electrical insulation, point of attachment

39

Cardiac muscle cells

Elongated, branching cells that have one or two nuclei.

40

Smooth sarcoplasmic reticulum

Cardiac muscle. Not arranged.

41

Intercalated disks

Binds cells end to end

42

Desmosomes

Hold cells together

43

Gap junctions

Allow cytoplasm to flow freely between cells. Low electrical resistance between cells

44

Conducting system

Relays action potentials through the heart

45

Sinoatrial node location

SA node. Right atrium, near superior vena cava

46

Atrioventricular node

AV node. Medial to the right atrioventricular valve.

47

Bundle of His

Atrioventricular bundle. From AV node. Travels to septum, splits to right and left branches

48

Purkinje fibers

Inferior terminal branches of the bundle. Electrical signals pass rapidly.

49

Resting membrane potential

Low permeability to Ca2+ and Na+. Higher permeability to K+.

50

Ectopic focus

Any part of the heart other than the SA node that generates a heartbeat

51

Absolute refractory period

Cardiac muscle cell is completely insensitive to further stimulation

52

Relative refractory period

Cell is sensitive to stimulation, but greater than normal stimulus to cause AP

53

Electrocardiogram

Summated record of the cardiac action potentials

54

P wave

Depolarization of atrial myocardium

55

QRS complex

Ventricular depolarization (contraction)

56

T wave

Repolarization of ventricles. (Relaxation)

57

Systole

Contract

58

Diastole

Dilate

59

When used alone, systole and diastole

Refer to ventricular systole and diastole.

60

Determines direction of blood movement

Chamber pressure
Heart valves

61

First heart sound

Low pitched "lubb". Atrioventricular valves close.

62

Second heart sound

Higher pitched "dupp". Closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves.

63

Third heart sound

Thin, young. Turbulent blood flow into ventricles.

64

Dicrotic notch

Aortic valve closes, causing higher pressure in aortic pressure curve. Pressure caused by recoil creates double pulse

65

Mean arterial pressure

MAP=CO X PR

Cardiac output
Peripheral resistance

66

Peripheral resistance

Total resistance against which blood must be emptied.

67

Cardiac output

Heart rate X stroke volume

68

Cardiac reserve

Difference between cardiac output when at rest and maximum cardiac output

69

Intrinsic regulation

Hearts own regulatory function.

70

Extrinsic regulation

Epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla
Sympathetic and parasympathetic

71

Preload

Extent to which ventricular walls are stretched

72

Starling law of the heart

Relationship between preload and stroke volume. Pumping effectiveness

73

Afterload

Pressure left ventricle must produce to overcome pressure in aorta.

74

Parasympathetic control

Vagus nerve. Inhibitory influence. Acetylcholine

75

Sympathetic control

Thoracic and spinal nerves. Increase heart rate, force of contraction. Norepinephrine

76

Hormonal control

Epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla. Increase rate and force

77

Baroreceptor reflexes

Regulate blood pressure. Carotid and aorta

78

Chemoreceptor reflexes

Regulate hearts activity. Sensitive to pH and CO2

79

Cardio regulatory center

Sensory action potentials integrated. Medulla oblongata

80

Heart block

Excess K+ in tissue heart rate and stroke volume decrease. Loss of AP conduction

81

Endothelium

All blood vessels have this internal lining

82

Pericapillary cells

Between basement membrane and endothelial cells. Fibroblasts, macrophages, smooth muscle

83

Continuous capillaries

No gaps between endothelial cells. Muscle, nervous tissue