Chapter 19: Ethics, Religion, and Sexuality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Ethics, Religion, and Sexuality Deck (16):
1

a system of moral principles; a way of determining right and wrong

ethics

2

a moral system based on maximizing pleasure and avoiding pain

hedonism

3

an approach to life emphasizing discipline and impulse control

asceticism

4

ethics based on the assumption that there are rules for human conduct and that morality consists of knowing the rules and obeying them

legalism

5

ethics based on the assumption that there are no absolute rules, or at least very few, and that each situation must be judged individually

situationism

6

sex between an older man and a younger man, or a boy; sometimes called boy love

pederasty

7

a form of nature religion in which the fertility of the soil is encouraged through various forms of ritual magic, often including ritual sexual intercourse

fertility cult

8

a religious or philosophical belief that body and spirit are separate and opposed to each other and that the goal of life is to free the spirit from the bondage of the body; thus a depreciation of the material world and the physical aspect of humanity

dualism

9

the practice of remaining celibate; a person who remains unmarried, usually for religious reasons; sometimes used to refer to abstaining from sexual intercourse, which is actually called chastity

celibacy

10

a philosophical system that holds that ethical judgements must be made on the basis of human experience and human reason

humanism

11

a religious or philosophical attitude that emphasizes moral behavior, usually according to strict standards, as the highest goal of human life; tends to favor strict regulation of human conduct to make people good

moralism

12

a philosophical or politcal attitude that affirms the value of many competing opinions and believes that the truth is discovered in the clash of diverse perspectives; believe in the maximum human freedom possible

pluralism

13

the term for sex by unmarried persons and, more generally, all immoral sexual behavior

fornication

14

voluntary sexual intercourse by a husband or wife with someone other than one's spouse; thus, betrayal of one's marriage vows

adultery

15

a cloning technique that involves substituting genetic material from an adult's cell for the nucleus of an egg

somatic cell nuclear transfer

16

creating tissues or cells that are genetically identical to those of a patient, to treat a disease

therapeutic cloning