Chapter 3: Sex Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Sex Research Deck (27):
1

a group of people a researcher wants t study and make inferences about

population

2

a part of a population

sample

3

an excellent method of sampling in research, in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample

random sample

4

an excellent method of sampling in research, in which each member of the population has a known probability of being included in the sample

probability sampling

5

the problem that some people will refuse to participate in a sex survey, thus making it difficult to study a random sample

problem of refusal or nonresponse

6

a bias in the results of sex surveys that arises when some people refuse to participate, so that those who are in the sample are volunteers wo may in some ways differ from those who refuse to participate

volunteer bias

7

a sample chosen in a haphazard manner relative to the population of interest; not a random or probability sample

convenience sample

8

purposely giving false information in a survey

purposeful disortion

9

a method for testing whether self-reports are reliable or accurate; participants are interviewed (or given a questionnaire) and then interviewed a second time sometime later to determine whether their answers are the same both times

test-retest reliability

10

a method of data collection in which the respondent fills out questionnaires on a computer

computer-assisted self-interview (CASI)

11

an ethical principle in research, in which people have a right to be informed, before participating, of what they will be asked to do in the research

informed consent

12

an ethical principle in research, which holds that the risks of participation should be distributed fairly across groups in society, as should the benefits

justice principle

13

an approach to analyzing the ethics of a research study, based on weighing the costs of the research (the participants' time, stress to participants, and so on) against the benefits of the research (gaining knowledge about human sexuality)

cost-benefit approach

14

a method for acquiring a sample of people in which existing participants suggest names of future participants to be recruited

snowball sampling

15

a set of procedures used to make valid inferences about text

content analysis

16

in content analysis, the correlation or percent of agreement between two coders independently rating the same texts

intercoder reliability

17

a collection of naturalistic, holistic methods, including participant observation and in-depth interviewing, in which the results are conveyed not in numbers but in words

qualitative

18

a research method used to provide a description of a human society

ethnography

19

a research method in which the scientist becomes part of the community to be studied and makes observations from inside the community

participant-observer technique

20

a study in which the researcher does not manipulate variables but rather studies naturally occurring relationships (correlations) among variables

correlational study

21

a type of research study in which one variable (the independent variable) is manipulated by the experimenter while all other factors are held constant; the research can then study the effects of the independent variable on some measured variable (the dependent variable); the researcher is permitted to make causal inferences about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable

experiment

22

reaching the conclusion that one factor actually causes or influences an outcome

causal inference

23

the average of respondents' scores

mean

24

the middle score

median

25

the percentage of people giving a particular response

incidence

26

how often a person does something

frequency

27

a number that measures the relationship between two variables

correlation