Chapter 19: Protecting Your Network Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Protecting Your Network Deck (61)
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1

Spoofing

The process of pretending to be someone or something you are not by placing false information into your packets.

2

Protocol Abuse

Doing things with a protocol that it wasn't meant to do, usually to carry out an attack.

3

Malformed packets

Packets with unwanted information in an attempt to break another system.

4

Attack Surface

The way that an exploit takes advantage of a vulnerability.

5

Attack Window

The time frame in which a bad guy can apply an attack surface against a vulnerability before patches are applied to prevent the exploit.

6

Zero-day Attacks

New attacks using vulnerabilities that haven't yet been identified or fixed.

7

ARP Cache Poisoning

Target the ARP caches (storing known IPs and MAC addresses) on hosts and switches

8

ARP Request

A special broadcast that a sending device sends out if it doesn't know the destination device's MAC address.

9

Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI)

Tool to prevent ARP poisoning.

10

DHCP Snooping

Switch process that monitors DHCP traffic, filtering out DHCP messages from untrusted sources.
Typically used to block attacks that use a rogue DHCP server.

11

Denial of Service (DoS) attack

A targeted attack on a server that provides some form of service on the Internet, with the goal of making that site unable to process any incoming server requests.

12

Amplification

The aspect of a DoS attack that makes a server do a lot of processing and responding.

13

Jamming

The process of sending artificial jam signals that effectively prevent any other station on the collision domain from transmitting its data onto the network. (Fixed by switches!)

14

Distributed DoS (DDoS)

Uses many many computers under the control of a single operator to launch a coordinated attack.

15

Zombie

A single computer under the control of an operator

16

Botnet

A group of computers under the control of one operator

17

Reflection

Requests are sent to normal servers as if they had come from the target server and the responses from the normal servers are reflected to the target server, overwhelming it.

18

Smurf Attack

A form of DoS attack that sends broadcast pings to the victim

19

Friendly/Unintentional DoS

Caused by too much legitimate traffic on a server that is too weak to handle it.

20

Permanent DoS

An attack that damages the targeted machine and renders that machine inoperable. (Also known as phlashing)

21

Man-in-the-middle

An attacker taps into communications between two systems, intercepting traffic, reading or manipulating it, then sending it on.

22

Session Hijacking

Tries to intercept a valid computer session to get authentication information.

23

Packet Sniffing

Intercepting packets

24

Banner Grabbing

When a malicious user probes a host's open ports to learn details about running services.

25

VLAN Hopping

Older technique to hack a switch to change a normal switch port from an access port to a trunk port, the hacker to access different VLANs.

26

Virus

A program that can make a copy of itself without your necessarily being aware of it.
All viruses carry some payload that may or may not do something malicious.

27

Worm

A form of virus that doesn't infect other files on the computer, but replicates by making copies of itself on other systems on a network.

28

Macro

A type of virus that exploits application macros to replicate and activate.

29

Trojan Horse

A piece of malware that pretends to do one thing, but actually does something evil.
They don't replicate

30

Rootkit

A Trojan horse that takes advantage of very low level operating system functions to hide itself from all but the most aggressive of anti-malware tools