Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (31):
1

in-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

case study

2

a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical
research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

code of ethics

3

applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand

content analysis

4

when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation

correlation

5

a variable changed by other variables

dependent variables

6

evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation

empirical evidence

7

observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

ethnography

8

the testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions

experiment

9

gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey

field research

10

when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

Hawthorne effect

11

a testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables

hypothesis

12

variables that cause changes in dependent variables

Independent variables

13

a sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing

interpretive framework

14

a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject

interview

15

a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to
create a basis for new research

literature review

16

a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together

meta-analysis

17

using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors

nonreactive research

18

specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

operational definitions

19

when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make
observations from an “insider” perspective

participant observation

20

a defined group serving as the subject of a study

population

21

data that are collected directly from firsthand experience

primary data

22

comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting

qualitative data

23

represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted

quantitative data

24

a study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger

random sample

25

a measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced

reliability

26

small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population

samples

27

an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing
sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions

scientific method

28

using data collected by others but applying new interpretations

secondary data analysis

29

collect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire

surveys

30

the degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of study

validity

31

a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in
publishing results

value neutrality: