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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (34):
1

tenets or convictions that people hold to be true

beliefs

2

groups that reject and oppose society’s widely accepted cultural patterns

countercultures

3

the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture

cultural imperialism

4

the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture

cultural relativism

5

patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies

cultural universals

6

shared beliefs, values, and practices

culture

7

the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and nonmaterial culture’s acceptance of it

culture lag

8

an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life

culture shock

9

the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one culture to another

diffusion

10

things and ideas found from what already exists

discoveries

11

the practice of evaluating another culture according to the standards of one’s own culture

ethnocentrism

12

direct, appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressions of a culture

folkways

13

established, written rules

formal norms

14

the integration of international trade and finance markets

globalization

15

the cultural patterns of a society’s elite

high culture

16

the standards a society would like to embrace and live up to

ideal culture

17

casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to

informal norms

18

new objects or ideas introduced to culture for the first time

innovations

19

a combination of pieces of existing reality into new forms

inventions

20

a symbolic system of communication

language

21

the objects or belongings of a group of people

material culture

22

the moral views and principles of a group

mores

23

the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society

nonmaterial culture

24

the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured

norms

25

mainstream, widespread patterns among a society’s population

popular culture

26

the way society really is based on what actually occurs and exists

real culture

27

a way to authorize or formally disapprove of certain behaviors

sanctions

28

the way that people understand the world based on their form of language

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

29

a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms

social control

30

people who live in a definable community and who share a culture

society

31

groups that share a specific identification, apart from a society’s majority, even as the members exist within a larger society

subcultures

32

gestures or objects that have meanings associated with them that are recognized by people who share a culture

symbols

33

a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society

values

34

a belief that another culture is superior to one’s own

xenocentrism