Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (50):
The sub-area of economics that focuses on individual parts of the economy, such as households or businesses.
The sub-area of economics that focuses on the economy as a whole by looking at aggregate data for large groups of people, companies, or products.
The resources used to create goods and services, including natural resources, labour, capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge.
Commodities that are useful inputs in their natural state.
Economic contributions of people
The inputs, such as tools, machinery, equipment, and buildings, used to produce goods and services and get them to the customer
People who combine the inputs of natural resources, labour, and capital to produce goods and services with the intention of making a profit or accomplishing a not-for-profit goal.
The movement of inputs and outputs among households, businesses, and governments;a way of showing how the sectors of the economy interact
The combination of policies, laws, and choices made by a nation's government to establish the systems that determine what goods and services are produced and how they are allocated.
An economic system based on competition in the marketplace and private ownership of the factors of production (resources); also know as the private enterprise system or capitalism.
An economic system characterized by government ownership of virtually all resources and economic decision making by central government planning; also known as planned economy and central planning.
An economic system in which the basic industries are owned either by the government or by the private sector under strong government control
Economics that combine several economic systems; for example, an economy in which the government owns certain industries but the private sector owns others
Perfect (pure) competition
A market structure in which a large number of small businesses sell similar products, buyers and sellers have good information and businesses can be easily opened or closed.
The quantity of a good or service that people are willing to buy at various prices.
A graph showing the quantity of a good or service that people are willing to buy at various prices.
The quantity of a good or service that businesses will make available at various prices or a given price.
A graph showing the quantity of a good or service that a business will make available at various prices.
The point at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied
An increase in a nation's output of goods and services
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total market value of all final goods and services produced within a nation's borders in a year.
Gross national product (GNP)
The total market value of all final goods and services produced by a country regardless of where the factors of production are located
A decline in GDP that lasts for at least two consecutive quarters
The condition when all people who want to work and can work have jobs.
The percentage of the total labour force that is actively looking for work but is not actually working
Short term unemployment that is not related to the business cycle
Unemployment that is caused by a mismatch between available jobs and the skills of available workers in an industry or a region; it is not related to the business cycle
Unemployment that occurs when a downturn in the business cycle reduces the demand for labour throughout the economy.
The value of what money can buy. When prices rise, purchasing power falls.
Inflation that occurs when the demand for goods and services is greater than the supply
Consumer price index (CPI)
An index of the prices of a "shopping basket" of goods and services purchased by consumers
Producer price index (PPI)
An index of the prices paid by producers and wholesalers for various commodities such as raw materials, partially finished goods and finished products
Bank of Canada
Canada's central bank, whose objective is the economic and financial well-being of Canada by creating a social balance of growth, employment, and price stability
The measures taken by the bank of Canada to regulate the amount of money In Circulation in order to influence the economy
The use of monetary policy by the Bank of Canada to tighten the money supply by selling government securities or raising interest rates
The use of monetary policy by the Bank of Canada to increase the growth of the money supply
The government's use of taxation and spending to affect the economy. Reducing taxes or increasing spending stimulates the economy; raising taxes or decreasing spending does the opposite.
Federal budget deficit
The condition that occurs when the federal government spends more for programs than it collects in taxes. It must borrow funds.
The accumulated total of all of the federal government's annual budget deficits
The situation that occurs when government spending replaces spending by the private sector
Securities that represent long term debt obligations (liabilities) issued by corporations and governments
The study of how a society (individuals, businesses and governments) uses scarce resources to produce and distribute goods and services
the world's main economic systems
are market economies (capitalism), command (planned) economies, socialism, and mixed economies.
many companies sell close substitutes in a market that is fairly easy to enter.
a few companies produce most or all of the industry's output. An oligopoly is also difficult to enter, and what one company does will influence others.
When the price increases, the quantity demanded falls but the quantity supplied rises. A price decrease leads to increased demand but a lower supply. At the point where the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied, demand and supply are in balance. The equilibrium point is achieved by market adjustments of quantity and price.
a nation's economic health
a nation's economy is growing when the level of business activity, as measured by GDP, is rising.
four types of unemployment
frictional, structural, cyclical and seasonal unemployment.
rate of inflation
is measured by changes in the CPI and the PPI.