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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (33)
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1

external environment

encompasses local, national, and multinational conditions that confront an organization

2

organizational environment

conditions within the organization itself

3

economic cycles

used to describe the fluctuation in economic activity that occurs over long periods of time in developed market economies

4

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

an historic agreement approved in 1993, by the Canadian Parliament, the U.S.Congress, and the Mexican Congress, designed to allow for eventual free trade month these three countries

5

Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)

Establishes free trade month the United States, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica

6

European Union (EU)

complex array of formal institutions designed to create a united Europe

7

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Strives to accelerate the economic growth, social progress, and cultural development in the regions through joint endeavors in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian nations

8

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Has 21 member countries bordering on the Pacific Ocean, including the United States, Japan, India, and China

9

International Labor Organization (ILO)

the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labour standards and it brings together representatives of governments, employers and workers to jointly shape policies and programs

10

Social Accountability International (SAI)

Promoters socially responsible approaches to conducting business and administers a certification process called Social Accountability 8000 (SA 8000)

11

World Trade Organization (WTO)

the most inclusive international trade organization, it is the only global body able to enforce decisions through its own court

12

Technology

refers to the process of making and using tools and equipment plus the knowledge used in the process

13

human resource information system (HRIS)

the system that results from computer technologies being used to gather, analyze, and distribute information about job applicants and employees

14

electronic human resource management (e-HRM)

refers to the use of IT for conducting HRM activities and for social networking among employees

15

company culture

the unique pattern of shared assumptions, values, and norms that shape the socialization activities, language, symbols, and ceremonies of people in the organization

16

vision

top management's view of the kind of company that it is trying to create. It can be thought of as a best-case scenario of where the company will be in the future

17

mission statement

defines a company's business and provides a clear view of what the company is trying to accomplish

18

values

the strong enduring beliefs and tenets that the company holds dear and that help to define and differentiate it from other companies

19

company subculture

exists when assumptions, values, and norms are shared by some - but not all- organizational members

20

multicultural organization

has a workforce representing the full mix of cultures found in the population at large, along with a commitment to utilize fully these human resources

21

business strategy

a set of integrated and coordinated commitments and actions intended to achieve stated business goals

22

strategy map

shows the cause-and-effect relationships that ultimately determine firm performance

23

competitive strategy

describes how a particular business or business unit competes against direct rivals who offer the same products and services

24

What is the strategic importance of understanding external and organizational environments?

Continuous change in the external environment means that adjustments often are needed in the organizational environment. For a firm to gain a competitive advantage, all of these elements must be aligned internally and fit the conditions in the external environment

25

What are the role and responsibilities of the HR Triad for understanding the external and organizational environments?

As organizations strive to adjust to changes in their environments, they often must develop new approaches to managing their human resources

26

What are implications of economic globalization for managing human resources?

In high-wage countries companies find it hard to compete by keeping labor costs low. Instead, they often pursue business strategies that emphasize innovation and require employees with high levels of skill and knowledge

27

What are three aspects of the political landscape that influence the managing of human resources?

As government administrations flux, businesses must constantly analyze the implications of their philosophies and policies. Trade policies and military conflicts can have enormous consequences. Many international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are concerned with labor issues

28

Describe the US and global labor markets

The US Labor market is expected to see slowed growth, a decrease in skill availability, greater competition for employees, and an increased dependence on immigrants. The labor forces in Europe and Japan are declining. In Africa, Latin America, North America and Asia the labor forces are growing. Employers make decisions about where to place their operations considering factors such as labor costs, skill level and health issues.

29

What are several ways in which country cultures differ and can influence the way organizations manage human resources?

Cultural differences in how work is designed, employees' expectations for how they will be treated, and management styles all influence how the organizations manage their human resources

30

What is the relationship between technology and managing human resources?

Technology makes new forms of organizing work possible as well as changing e-HRM activities