chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

genetics > chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 2 Deck (38):
1

chromatin

is the stainable material in a cell nucleus: DNA and proteins

2

Histones and Nonhistones

two major types of proteins associated with DNA in chromatin.

3

Topoisomerases

The amount and type of DNA supercoiled is controlled by these enzymes that are found in all organisms.

4

Plasmids

autonomously replicating small chromosomes not essential to the life of the cell.

5

Different DNA structures are ________

A-DNA, B-DNA, AND Z-DNA

6

In the cell the functional forms of RNA are________, and how many strands to they have?

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA (ribosomal RNA), snRNA (small nuclear), and miRNA (micro), and they are all single stranded molecules.

7

Many monomers make up _______ and _______ are called _______

DNA, & RNA...... nucleotides

8

nucleotides consist of ________

a sugar (pentose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (contains a nitrogen)

9

The pentose sugar for DNA is______ and the pentose sugar for RNA is________

deoxyribose, and ribose

10

There are two classes of bases which are _______

purines, and pyrimidines

11

purines are nine membered double rings and include _______

adenine, and guanine

12

pyrimidines are six membered single rings and include_______

thymine, cytosine, and uracil

13

The combination of a sugar and a base is called______

nucleoside.

14

Many nucleotides linked together are named_______

polynucleotides and make up DNA or RNA.

15

The bonds between bases are called ______ and they follow a ____ to____ sequence.

phosphodiester bonds. 5 to 3 prime.

16

The full amount of genetic material found in a virus, a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic organelle, or in one haploid set of a haploid organism's chromosomes is ________.

genome

17

There are two types of supercoiling which are ______ and ______ what does each one do

positive and negative. positive adds another base turn, negative removes another base turn.

18

Usually all proteins associated with DNA and have a net negative charge are______ ________

nonhistones.

19

The basic structural units of eukaryotic chromatin are ________

nucleosomes

20

There are five main histones_______

H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4

21

Which has a higher C-value plants, animals, or humans?

Plants, then humans, then animals.

22

A specific set of sequences at the end of a linear chromosome, stabilizes the chromosome and is required for replication is called________

telomere

23

Is the region of a chromosome containing DNA sequences to which mitotic and meiotic spindle fibers attach.

centromere

24

In the 1930's - 1940's They lysed (broke open) III-s cells with a detergent created the Avery transformation experiment.

Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. Macleod, and Maclyn McCarty.

25

In 1928 British medical officer was working with streptococcus pneumoniae. Discovered virulent strain is smooth and has a polysaccharide coat non-virulent strains are rough.

Fredrick Griffith, Griffiths transformation experiment

26

Threadlike structures found in nuclei carriers of hereditary information.

chromosomes

27

In 1869 swiss biochemist isolated substance from white blood cells of pus in used bandages from the crimean war, and discovered nucleic acid.

Friedrich Miescher

28

In 1953 they published a paper that provided more evidence that DNA was genetic material.

Alfred D. Hershey, Martha Chase

29

The phosphate group attaches to which carbon on a pentose ring?

The 5'

30

On one end there is a phosphate group attached to the 5' carbon and on the other end is an OH group attached to the 3' carbon there making _______ chains ______.

polynucleotide, polar

31

In 1953 they proposed a model for the physical and chemical structure of the DNA molecule.

James D. Watson, Francis H.C. Crick

32

Performed base composition studies using x-ray diffraction.

Erwin Chargoff, Rosalin Franklin, and Maurice H.F. Wilkins

33

DNA is made up of ________ (sugar), _______ (purine), _________(pyrimidine), and _________ ________. where is the hydrogen atom attached.

deoxyribose nucleic acid, adinine (A), guanine (g), cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and phosphate group. the #2 carbon.

34

RNA is made up of ________ (sugar), _______ (purine), _________(pyrimidine), and _________ ________. where is the hydroxyl group attached.

ribose, adinine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, phosphate group, and the 2' carbon.

35

DNA sequence that is present in one to a few copies in the genome.

unique-sequence DNA

36

DNA present in a few to about 10^5 copies in the genome.

moderately repetitive

37

DNA present in about 10^5 to 10^7 copies in the genome.

highly repetitive

38

The greatest amount of tandemly repeated DNA is associated with the ________ and the ________

centromeres and telomeres.