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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (26):
1

this is primarily concerned with genetic processes that occur within individuals and how genes are passed from one individual to another, thus unit of study for ______ ______ is the individual

transmission genetics

2

how genetic information is encoded within DNA and how biochemical processes of the cell translate the genetic information into influencing the phenotype, focus is on the cell

molecular genetics

3

applies the principles of transmission genetics to large groups of individuals, focusing on the transmission processes at one or a few genetic loci

Population genetics

4

who championed neo-darwinian synthesis

Sir Ronald Fisher, Sewall Wright, and J.B.S. Haladane

5

Population geneticists investigate the patterns of genetic variation found among individuals within groups and how these patterns vary geographically and change over time

genetic structure of populations

6

This is a group of interbreeding individuals who share a common set of genes.

Mendelian population

7

The principal aim of population genetics is to understand the genetics of what?

evolution

8

genes shared by the individuals of a Mendelian population are called what?

gene pool

9

what does a frequency proportion always range from ?

0 and 1

10

if 43% of the people have red hair what is the frequency?

0.43

11

how do you calculate genotype frequencies?

count number of individuals with one particular genotype and divide this number by the total number of individuals in the population.

12

who worked with moths in England?

E.B. Ford

13

in most cases geneticists use what type of frequencies to describe how the gene pool changes over time?

allele frequency

14

Are alleles or genotypes passed from one generation to next?

alleles because the genotype breaks down to alleles when gametes are formed

15

Any locus that has more than one allele present within a population is what?

Polymorphic locus

16

In 1968 he proposed that much of the pattern of evolutionary changes in protein molecules could be explained by the opposing forces of mutation and random genetic drift.

Motoo Kimura

17

What is the theory that acknowledges the presence of extensive genetic variation in proteins but proposes that most of the variation in neutral with regard to natural selection.

Neutral theory

18

What type of mutation is A → a?

forward

19

What type of mutation is a → A?

reverse

20

can mutations occur in forward and reverse?

yes

21

what is it called when a population is initially established by a small number of breeding individuals?

founder effect

22

This type of sampling error played an important role in the population of Tristan da Cunha

bottleneck effect

23

this is the superiority of heterozygous genotypes regarding one or more characters compared with the corresponding homozygous genotypes based on growth, survival, phenotypic expression, and fertility. Also called heterozygote superiority or overdominance

heterosis

24

This occurs when individuals with similar phenotypes mate preferentially

positive assortative mating

25

this occurs when phenotypically dissimilar individuals mate more often than do randomly chosen individuals.

negative assortative mating

26

This involves preferential mating between relatives.

inbreeding