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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (41):
1

what are the stop codons

UAA
UAG
UGA

2

what is the initiation codon

AUG (MET) Methionine

3

discovered the relationship between 64 codons and the 20 amino acids was determined by experiments done mostly in the laboratories of _________ and ________ who shared the Nobel prize in 1968.

Marshall Nirenberg and H. Gobind Khorana

4

Poly G cannot be translated in vitro because it _________

folds up upon itself and therefore cannot be translated.

5

UUU
UUC
(F) (Phe)

Phenylalanine
Neutral, Nonpolar

6

CUU
CUC
CUA
CUG
UUA
UUG
Leu (L)

Leucine
Neutral, Nonpolar

7

AUU
AUC
AUA
Ile (I)

Isoleucine
Neutral, Nonpolar

8

AUG
Met (M)

Methionine
Neutral, Nonpolar

9

GUU
GUC
GUA
GUG
Val (V)

Valine
Neutral, Nonpolar

10

UCU
UCC
UCA
UCG
Ser (S)

Serine
Neutral Polar

11

CCU
CCC
CCA
CCG
Pro (P)

Proline
Neutral Nonpolar

12

ACU
ACC
ACA
ACG
Thr (T)

Theronine
Neutral Polar

13

GCU
GCC
GCA
GCG
Ala (A)

Alanine
Neutral, Nonpolar

14

UAU
UAC
Tyr (Y)

Tyrosine
Neutral Polar

15

CAU
CAC
His (H)

Histidine
Basic

16

CAA
CAG
Gln (Q)

Glutamine
Neutral, Polar

17

AAU
AAC
Asn (N)

Asparagine
Neutral Polar

18

AAA
AAG
Lys (K)

Lysine
Basic

19

GAU
GAC
Asp (D)

Aspartic Acid
Acidic

20

GAA
GAG
Glu (E)

Glutamic Acid
Acid

21

UGU
UGC
Cys (C)

Cysteine
Neutral Polar

22

UGG
Trp (W)

Tryptophan
Neutral Nonpolar

23

CGU
CGC
CGA
CGG
AGA
AGG
Arg (R)

Arginine
Basic

24

AGU
AGC
Ser (S)

Serine
Neutral Polar

25

GGU
GGC
GGA
GGG
Gly (G)

Glycine
Neutral Nonpolar

26

All genetic code is degenerate with two exceptions which are AUG and UGG

METHIONINE AND TRYPTOPHAN

27

The addition or deletion of base pairs in DNA sequencing causes ________ ______ mutations.

frame shift

28

When do polypeptides fold contranslationally?

They fold during the translation process rather than after they are released from the ribosome.

29

is a high-molecular-weight, nitrogen-containing orgainc compound of complex shape and composition.

protein

30

a protein consists of one or more macromolecular subunits called

polypeptides

31

polypeptides are composed of small building blocks called

amino acids.

32

bonds that are created from a covalent bond between a carboxyl group from one amino acid and an amino group from another amino acid

peptide bond

33

The tertiary structure of a polypeptide is directly determined by the distribution of the _______ _____ along the chain.

R groups

34

how many codes make up the genetic code

64

35

another name for stop codons are

nonsense codons, and chain-terminating codons.

36

The wobble hypothesis was proposed by

Francis Crick

37

The recognition of the tRNA by the mRNA codon was proved by ________

G. von Ehrenstein, B. Weisblum, and S. Benzer

38

Polypeptide synthesis takes place on

Ribosomes

39

In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes _________ consist of two unequally sized subunits- the large and small each of which consists of a complex between RNA molecules and proteins

ribosomes

40

all amino acids have the same common structure except

proline

40

Neutral non polar

Trp (W)