Chapter 2/Apendix B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2/Apendix B Deck (58)
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Affiliation motive

Need to associate with others and maintain social bonds

1

Anecdotal evidence

Personal stories about specific incidents and experiences

2

Case study

An in-depth investigation of an individual subject

3

Coefficient of determination

Percentage of variation in one variable that can be predicted based on the other variable

4

Confounding of variables

A condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their independent effects

5

Conservation

Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or experience

6

Control group

Subjects in a study who do not receive special treatment given to the experimental group

7

Correlation

Extent to which two variables are related to each other

8

Correlation coefficient

A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables

9

Date collection techniques

Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements

10

Dependent variable

In an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable

11

Descriptive statistics

Statistics that are used to organize and summarize data

12

Double blind procedure

A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups

13

Empiricism

The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation

14

Experiment

A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observe whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result

15

Experimental group

The subjects in a study who get special treatment

16

Experimenter bias

A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained

17

Extraneous variables

Any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study

18

Frequency distribution

And orderly arrangement of score indicating the frequency of each score or group of scores

19

Frequency polygon

A line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution

20

Histogram

A bar graph that presents data from a frequency distribution

21

Hypothesis

A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables

22

Independent variable

In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable

23

Inferential statistics

Statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions

24

Journal

A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry

25

Mean

The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution

26

Median

The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores

27

Meditation

A family of mental exercises and watch a conscious attempt is made to focus attention in a non-analytical way

28

Mode

The score that occurs most frequently in a distribution

29

Naturalistic observation

A descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects