Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behavior Deck (94)
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1

minimum length of the time after action potential during another action potential cannot begin

Absolute Refractory Period

2

a brief change in a neuron's electrical charge

Action Potential

3

an inherited characteristic that increased in a population because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged

Adaption

4

research studies that assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents

Adoption Studies

5

axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body

Afferent Nerve Fibers

6

a chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter

Agonist

7

a chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter

Antagonist

8

partial or total loss of the ability to articulate ideas or comprehend written or spoken language

Aphasia

9

the system of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

10

a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons,or to muscles or glands

Axon

11

where plasma regions of cell body (soma) generate nerve impulses

Axon Hillock

12

any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism

Behavior

13

an interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits

Behavioral Genetics

14

the brain and the spinal cord

Central Nervous System (CNS)

15

the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum

Cerebral Cortex

16

the right and left halves of the cerebrum

Cerebral Hemispheres

17

a solution that fills the hollow cavities of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CFS)

18

threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information

Chromosomes

19

the structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres

Corpus Callosum

20

a limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences

Critical Period

21

branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information

Dendrites

22

a gene that is expressed when paired genes are heterozygous (different)

Dominant Gene

23

axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body

Efferent Nerve Fibers

24

sending weak electric currents into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it

Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)

25

a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

26

a group of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning

Endocrine System

27

the entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects

Endorphins

28

theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations

Evolutionary Psychology

29

an electric potential that increases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials

Excitatory PSP

30

people who tend to be interested in the external world of people and things

Extraverts