Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Deck (51):
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What are Cathode Rays?

Cathode rays are streams of electrons emitted by the cathode in a partially evacuated tube.

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What are electrons?

Electrons are subatomic particle that has a relative charge of 1- and essentially zero mass.

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What is an ion?

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a positive or negative charge.

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What is a cation?

A cation is a positively charged ion.

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What is an anion?

An anion is a negatively charged ion.

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What is radioactivity?

Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of high energy radiation and particles by materials.

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What is a beta particle?

A beta particle is a radioactive commission that is a high energy electrons.

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What is an alpha particle?

An alpha particle is a radioactive emission with a charge of 2+ and a mass equivalent to that of the helium nucleus.

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What is a nucleus?

Nucleus is a positively charged center of an Atom that contains nearly all the Atoms mass.

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What is a proton?

A proton is a subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom, that has a relative charge of 1+ and a mass number 1.

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What is the neutron?

A neutron is an electrically neutral (uncharged) subatomic particle with the mass 1.

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What is an atomic mass unit (amu)?

An atomic mass unit is a unit used to express the relative masses of Atoms and subatomic particle that is exactly 1/12 the mass of one Atom of carbon with 6 protons and 6 neutrons.

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What is a dalton (da)?

A Dalton is a unit of mass equal to one atomic mass unit

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What are isotopes?

Isotopes are Atoms of an element containing the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

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What is a nuclide?

A nuclide is a specific isotope of an element.

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What is an atomic number (Z)?

An atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an Atom.

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What is a nucleon?

A nucleon is a proton or neutron in the nucleus.

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What is a mass number (A)?

A mass number is the number of nucleons in an atom.

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What is the periodic table of elements?

The periodic Table of elements is a chart of the elements in order of their atomic numbers and in a pattern based on their physical and chemical properties.

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What is a period (of elements)?

A period is All the elements in a row of the periodic table.

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What is a group or family (of elements)?

A group or family is all the elements in a column of the periodic table.

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What is a radionuclide?

A radionuclide is a radioactive (unstable) nuclide.

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What is the halogen?

Halogen is an element in Group 17 of the periodic table.

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Alkali metal

An element in group one of the periodic table.

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Alkaline earth metal

An element in group two the periodic table.

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Metals

Elements that are typically shiny, malleable, ductile solids that conduct heat and electricity well and tend to form positive ions.

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Nonmetals

Element with properties opposite those of metals including poor conductivity of heat and electricity.

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Metalloids or semimetals

Elements that tend to have the physical properties of metals and the chemical properties of nonmetals.

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Main group elements or representative elements

The elements in group 1,2 and 13 through 18 of the periodic table.

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Transition metals

The elements in group 3 through 12 of the periodic table

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Noble gases

The elements in group 18 of the periodic table

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Average atomic mass

The weighted average of the masses of all isotopes of an element, calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its mass in atomic mass units and then summing the products.

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Natural abundance

The proportion of a particular isotope, usually expressed as a percentage, relative to all the isotopes of that element in a natural sample.

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Molecular mass

The mass in amu of one molecule of a molecular compound.

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Formula unit

The smallest electrically neutral unit of an ionic compound.

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Formula mass

The mass in AMU of one formula unit of an ionic compound.

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Mole (mol)

On amount of a substance that contains Avocado's number of particles (atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units)

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What is Avogadro's number?

6.0221×10^ 23

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Avogadro's number

The number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 g of Carbon 12 isotopes. It is the number of particles in one mole

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Molar mass

The mass of one mole of a substance.

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Quarks

Elementary particles that combine to form neutrons and protons.

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Nucleosynthesis

The natural formation of nuclei as a result of fusion and other nuclear processes.

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Mass defect

The energy that holds the nucleons together in the nucleus.

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Strong nuclear force

The fundamental orders of nature that keeps quarks together in subatomic particles and nucleons together in atomic nuclei.

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Neutron capture

The absorption of a neutron by the nucleus.

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Beta decay

The process by which a neutron in a neutron-rich nucleus decays into a proton and a beta particle.

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By adjusting the electrical charge on the top and bottom plates of the lower Chamber of his apparatus, Millikan was able to slow, stop, and even reverse the fall of oil drops. Which of the two plates must have been positively charged?

Top plate

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if an alpha particle hits an electron in an atom of gold, why doesn't bounce back The way it does when it hits the nucleus of a gold Atom?

Alpha particle reacts with the electron.

48

Suggest the reason why the elements in Mendeleev's version of the periodic table are in order of atomic mass and not atomic number?

The concept of atomic number was unknown in the mid 19th century.

49

How does a unit of measure such as 500 facial tissues in a box relate to the concept of the mole?

It represents the number of objects (tissues) per box. This is analogous having Avocado's number of particles in a mole.

50

Which contains more atoms: 1 g of gold or 1 ?

1 g of silver.