Chapter 1: Matter And Energy Flashcards Preview

CHEM 111 > Chapter 1: Matter And Energy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1: Matter And Energy Deck (90):
0

What is Matter?

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.

1

What is mass?

Mass is the property that defines the quantity of matter in an object.

2

What is chemistry?

Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the energy consumed or given off when matter undergoes a change

3

What is a solid?

A solid is a form of matter that has definite shape and volume.

4

What is a liquid?

A liquid is a form of matter that occupies a definite volume but flows to assume the shape of its containers.

5

What is a gas?

I guess is a form of matter that has neither definite volume nor shape and that expands to fill its container; also called vapor.

6

What is an Atom?

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical characteristics of the element.

7

What is a molecule?

A molecule is a collection of atoms chemically bonded together.

8

What is a chemical bond?

A chemical bond is a force that holds two atoms in a molecule or a compound together.

9

What is sublimation?

Sublimation is the transformation of a sock would directly into a vapor (gas)

10

What is deposition?

Deposition is the transformation of a vapor (gas) directly into a solid.

11

What is energy?

Energy is the ability to work.

12

What is work?

Work is the energy required to move an object through a given distance.

13

What is heat?

Heat is a flow of energy from one object or place to another due to differences in the temperatures of the objects or places.

14

What is a chemical reaction?

A chemical reaction is the conversion of one or more substances into one or more different substances.

15

What is potential energy (PE)?

Attentional energy is the energy stored in an object because of its position or composition.

16

What is kinetic energy (KE)?

Connecticut energy is the energy of an object in motion due to its mass (m) and its speed (u).

17

What is the equation for Kinetic Energy?

KE= (1/2)mu^2

18

What is the law of conservation of energy?

The law of conservation of energy is the principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.

19

What is a pure substance?

A pure substance is matter that cannot be separated into simpler matter by physical process.

20

What is physical process?

Physical process is a transformation of a sample of matter, such as the change in its physical state, that does not alter the chemical identity of any substance in.

21

What is an element?

An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by any chemical process.

22

What is a compound?

A compound is a pure substance that is composed of two or more elements together in fixed proportions and that can be broken down into those elements by some chemical process.

23

What is a chemical formula?

Chemical formula is a notation for representing the elemental composition of a pure substance using the symbols of the elements; subscripts indicate the relative number of atoms of each element in the substance.

24

What is the law of constant composition?

The law of constant composition is the principle that all samples of a particular compound always contains the same elements combined in the same proportion.

25

What is a mixture?

A mixture is a combination of pure substances in variable portions in which the individual substances retain their chemical identity and can be separated from one another by physical process.

26

What is a homogeneous mixture?

A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the components are distributed uniformly throughout and have no visible boundaries or regions.

27

What is a solution?

A solution is another name for a homogeneous mixture solutions are often the liquids but they may also be solids or gases.

28

What is a heterogeneous mixture?

A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the components are not distributed uniformly so that the mixture contains distinct regions of different compositions.

29

What are immiscible liquids?

Immiscible liquids are combinations of liquids that are incapable of mixing with or dissolving in each other.

30

What is distillation?

Distillation is a process using evaporation and condensation to separate a mixture of substances with different volatilities.

31

What is volatility?

Volatility is a measure of how readily a substance vaporizes.

32

What is filtration?

Filtration is a process by separating solid particles from a liquid or gaseous sample by passing the sample through a porous material that retains the solid particles.

33

What is chromatography?

Chromatography is a process involving stationary and mobile phases for separating a mixture of substances based on their different affinities for the two types of phases.

34

What is an intensive property?

I'm in intensive property is a property that is independent of the amount of substance present.

35

What is extensive property?

Extensive property is a property that varies with the amount of substance present.

36

What is a physical property?

Physical property is a property of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance.

37

What is density (d)?

Density is the ratio of a mass (m) of an object to its volume (v).

38

What is a chemical property?

Chemical property is a property of a substance that can be observed only by reacting the substance chemically to form another substance.

39

What is the scientific method?

The scientific method is an approach to acquire knowledge based on observations of phenomena, development of a testable hypothesis, and additional experiments that test the validity of the hypothesis.

40

What is the scientific law?

The scientific law is a concise and generally applicable statement of a fundamental scientific principle.

41

What is the law of definite proportions?

The law of definite proportion is the principle that compounds always contain the same proportions of their component elements; equivalent to the law of constant composition.

42

What is the scientific theory?

Scientific theory is a general explanation of why the observed phenomena that has been extensively tested.

43

What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a tentative and testable explanation of an observation or a series of observations.

44

What is the law of multiple proportions?

The Law of multiple proportions is the principle that went to masses of one element react with a given mass of another element to form two different compounds, the two masses of the first element to have a ratio of two small whole numbers.

45

What is the molecular formula?

The molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows how many atoms of each element are in one molecule of a pure substance.

46

What is the structural formula?

The structural formula is a representation of a molecule that uses short lines between the symbols of elements to show chemical bonds between Atoms.

47

What does COAST stand for?

Collect
Organize
Analyze
Solve
and Think about the answer.

48

What is a meter (m)?

A meter is the standard unit of length named after the Greek metron, which means measure equivalent to 39.37 inches.

49

What is a joule (j)?

A joule is the SI unit of energy equivalent to 1 kg x (m/s)^2

50

What is precision?

Precision is the extent to which repeated measurements of the same variable agree.

51

What is accuracy?

Accuracy is the agreement between an experimental value and the true value.

52

What are significant figures?

Significant figures are all the certain digits in a measured value plus one estimated digit. The greater the number of significant figures the greater the certainty with which the values are known.

53

What is the conversion factor?

The conversion factor is the fraction in which the numerator is equivalent to the denominator but is expressed in different units making the fraction equivalent to 1.

54

What is absolute zero (0 K)?

Absolute zero is the zero point on Kelvin temperature scale; theoretically the lowest temperature possible.

55

What is Kelvin (K)?

Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature.

56

Define zetta.

Zetta (Z): 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

10^21

57

Define exa.

Exa (E): 1,000, 000,000,000,000,000

10^18

58

Define peta.

Peta (P): 1,000,000,000,000,000

10^15

59

Define Tera.

Tera (T): 1,000,000,000,000

10^12

60

Define giga.

Giga (G): 1,000,000,000

10^9

61

Define mega.

Mega (M): 1,000,000

10^6

62

Define kilo.

Kilo (k): 1,000

10^3

63

Define hecto.

Hecto (h): 100

10^2

64

Define deka.

Deka (da): 10

10^1

65

Define deci.

Deci (d): 0.1

10^-1

66

Define centi.

Centi (c): 0.01

10^-2

67

Define milli.

Milli (m): 0.001

10^-3

68

Define micro.

Micro (u with the tear drop): 0.000001

10^-6

69

Define nano.

Nano (n): 0.000000001

10^-9

70

Define pico.

Pico (p): 0.000000000001

10^-12

71

Define femto.

Femto (f): 0.000000000000001

10^-15

72

Define atto.

Atto (a): 0.000000000000000001

10^-18

73

Define Zepto.

Zepto (z): 0.000000000000000000001

10^-21

74

What is the S I unit for mass?

Kilogram (kg)

75

What is the SI unit for length?

Meter (m)

76

What is the SI unit for temperature?

Kelvin (K)

77

What is the SI unit for time?

Second (s)

78

What is the SI unit for electric current?

Ampere (A)

79

What is the SI unit of the quantity of a substance?

Mole (mol)

80

Concept test:
ice cream vendors often use dry ice, which is solid carbon dioxide (CO2), to keep their ice cream frozen. Over time, The dry ice disappears as solid CO2 turns into CO2 gas.

A. What is the name of this change in physical state?

B. what is the name of the reverse process in which dry ice is produced from CO2 gas?

A. Sublimation
B. Deposition

81

A compound with formula NO may be present in the exhaust gases leaving the cars engine. As NO travels through the cars exhaust system, some of it decomposes into nitrogen and oxygen gas. What is the volume ratio of nitrogen oxygen form from NO?

1:1

82

If the speed of a vehicle doubles, by what factor does it kinetic energy in crease?

The Kinetic energy increases by a factor of 4.

83

Which physical process-distillation, filtration, or chromatography-would you use to perform each of the following tasks?

A. Removing particles of rust from drinking water.
B. Separating the different coloring agents in a sample of ink.
C. Separating volatile compounds normally found in natural gas that have dissolved in a sample of crude oil.

A. Filtration
B. Chromatography
C. Distillation

84

Which of these properties of a sample of cure iron our intensive:
A. Its mass
B. its density
C. Its volume
D. Its hardness

B and D

85

Which of the following properties of cold or chemical and which are physical?

A. Gold reacts with a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid known as aqua regia.
B. Gold melts at 1064°C
C. Gold can be hammered into sheets so thin that light passes through them.
D. Gold can be recovered from gold or by treating the Gold ore with a solution containing cyanide, which reacts with and dissolves gold.

A. Chemical
B. physical
C. Physical
D. Chemical

86

Figure 1.15 is a space-filling model of methanol. What is its molecular formula?

CH(base)4O
or
CH(base 3)OH

87

Does our measured density value prove that the nugget is pure gold or does it only fail to prove that the nugget is not Gold? Explain the difference between these two conclusions and explain why you prefer one over the other.

Fails to disprove: The density value matches that of gold, but the density alone does not prove conclusively that it is gold.

88

How many significant figures are there in values in example in guidelines 1,2, and 4? (Page 22)

3,3, and 4

89

An adventurous thru-hiker begins hiking the Appalachian Trail, at its southern terminus at Springer Mountain, Georgia, at 7 AM on April 3 and completes his journey at its northern terminus on the peak of Mount Katahdin, Maine, at 4:47 pm on August 28. According to the Appalachian Trail Conservancy the trail is 2175 miles long.

A. What is the hikers average speed in miles per day?
B. which do you think is the weak link in calculating the hikers average speed: The actual distance hike or the time that it took?

A. 14.7
B. we only know the elapsed time to the closest minute.