Flashcards in Chapter 3: Atomic Structure Deck (35):
Any form of radiant energy in the electromagnetic spectrum.
A continuous range of radiant energy that includes Gamma Rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, and radio waves.
The distance from crest to crest or trough to trough on a wave.
The number of crests of a wave that pass a stationary point of reference per second.
The SI unit of frequency with units of reciprocal seconds: 1 Hz = 1s^-1 = 1 cycle per second (cps)
A set of dark lines in the otherwise continuous solar spectrum.
Atomic emission spectra
Characteristic patterns of bright lines produced when atoms are vaporized in high-temperature flames or electrical discharges.
Atomic absorption spectra
Characteristic patterns of dark lines produced when an external source of radiation passes through free, gaseous atoms.
The smallest discrete quantity of a particular form of energy.
Planck constant (h)
The proportionality constant between the energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation expressed in E=hv; h=6.626x10^-34 J x s
A model based on the idea that energy is absorbed and emitted in discrete quantities of energy called quanta.
Having values restricted to whole-number multiples of a specific base value.
A quantum of electromagnetic radiation.
The release of electrons from a material as a result of electromagnetic radiation striking it.
The minimum frequency of light required to produce the photoelectric effect.
The amount of energy needed to dislodge an electron from the surface of a material.
The most stable, lowest energy state of a particle.
Any energy state above the ground state.
Movement of an electron between energy levels.
The wave associated with any moving particle.
A wave confined to a given space with a wavelength (lambda) related to the length L of the space by L=(lambda/2), where n is a whole number.
A location in a standing wave that experiences no displacement.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
The principle that one cannot simultaneously know the exact position and the exact momentum of an electron.
Wave mechanics or quantum mechanics
A mathematical description of the wavelike behavior of electrons and other particles.
Schrödinger wave equation
A description of how the electron matter wave varies with location and time around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.
Wave function (phi)
A solution to the Schrödinger wave equation.
Defined by the square of the wave function (phi); regions in an atom where the probability of finding an electron is high.
One of four related numbers that specify the energy, shape, and orientation of orbitals in an atom and the spin orientation of electrons in the orbitals.
Principle quantum number (n)
A positive integer describing the relative size and energy of an atomic orbital or group of orbitals in an atom.
Angular momentum quantum number (l)
An integer having any value from 0 to (n-1) that defines the shape of an orbital.
Magnetic quantum number (m(base l))
Defines the orientation of an orbital in space; an integer that may have any value from -l to +l, where l is the angular momentum quantum number.
Spin quantum number (m(base s))
Either + 1/2 or -1/2, indicating the spin orientation of an electron.
Pauli exclusive principle
No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
The method of building. Electron configurations of atoms by adding one electron at a time as atomic numbers increases across the rows of the periodic table.