Flashcards in Chapter 2-Cardiorespiratory System And Gas Exchange Deck (19)
Function of blood
Transport oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic byproducts
What is hemoglobin?
Iron-containing protein within red blood cells capable of binding between one and four oxygen molecules
What is the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Indicates the saturation of hemoglobin at various partial pressures of carbon dioxide, making hemoglobin more likely to release oxygen
Illustrates that binding the first molecule to hemoglobin facilitates subsequent binding of more oxygen molecules.
What conditions move the Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve to right, thus releasing more oxygen from hemoglobin?
Factors consistent with muscle contractions:
Low PH (more acidic)
High partial pressure of CO2
What is the internal pacemaker for the heart?
What does an Electrocardiogram measure?
Electrical activity of the heart, specifically the P-wave (atrial depolarization), QRS complex (ventricular depolarization) and T-wave (depolarization of the ventricals)
What is the cardiac cycle?
The events that occur from the start of one heart beat to the start of next.
Includes contraction (systole) and period s of relaxation (diastole)
What is Systolic blood pressure?
Pressure of blood against arterial walls during ventricular contraction
Measures the work of the heart
What is Diastolic blood pressure?
Pressure against arterial walls when no blood is being forced through.
Indication of vascular stiffness or rate of vasoconstriction
What is Cardiac Output?
Amount of blood pumped by heart in 1 minute.
Q=SV x HR
What is stroke volume?
Amount of blood ejected per heartbeat.
SV=EDV - ESV
What is end-diastolic volume (ESV)?
Volume of blood in ventricles after filling.
What is end-systolic volume (ESV)?
The amount of blood in ventrical after contraction
What is oxygen uptake (VO2)?
Amount of oxygen used by tissues of the body
How is VO2 calculated?
VO2=(HR) x (EDV - ESV) x a-vO2
a-vO2 is the arterial oxygen content minus the venous oxygen content in milliliter a of O2 per 100 mL of blood. The difference tells us how much oxygen was extracted for exercise
What is VO2 Max used for?
Assesses the degree physical conditioning
What is the order of the heart structures blood travels through?
R atrium via the superior and inferior vena cava
Lungs for oxygen via pulmonary artery
Left atrium via the pulmonary vein
Out to the body via the aorta
Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs?
Capillary wall within the alveolus