Chapter 2 Causes of Abnormal behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Causes of Abnormal behavior Deck (60):
1

Etiology

causes of the disorder

2

Biopsychosocial model

Integrates evidence from biological, psychological, and social dimensions

3

Biological Paradigm

abnormal behavior stems from biological causes

4

Psychodynamic paradigm

abnormal behavior stems from unconscious mental conflicts that are rooted in childhood experiences

5

Freud

sexuality in development through adolescence

6

Defence Mechanisms

Denial, Projection, Displacement, Sublimation, Reaction Formation, rationalization, repression

7

Denial

memory never occurred or did not exist

8

Projection

attributing one's own feelings to others.

9

Displacement

feelings are transferred to a less threatening object

10

Reaction formation

turning a painful feeling or experience into it's opposite

11

Repression

Hiding a memory away from consciousness

12

Sublimation

modifying an impulses into one that is socially acceptable

13

Rationalization

Justifying

14

Cognitive-Behavioral Paradigm

Abnormal behavior as a product of learning

15

Causality

evaluating the causes of a mental disorder based on a number of factors instead of one

16

Equifinality

Many routes that lead to the same disorder

17

Multifinality

One route that leads to many different disorderds

18

Diathesis-Stress Model

a disorder is activated due to a combination of a diathesis,
, stress, and risk factors.

19

Reciprocal causality

bidirectional causality

20

Neuron

billions of tiny nerve cells that serve as the building blocks for the brain

21

Synapse

gaps between neurons

22

Dendrite

branches that receive messages from other neurons

23

Treatment for Schizophrenia

blocks dopamine receptors

24

Treatment of Depression

inhibits reuptake of serotonin

25

Parts of the Hindbrain

Medulla
Pons
cerebellum

26

Hindbrain

responsible for basic bodily functions

27

Midbrain

responsible for motor activities
reticular activating system - sleeping waking

28

Forebrain

responsible for sensory, emotional, cognitive processes

29

Limbic System

forebrain connects to midbrain and hindbrain
responsible for emotion and learning
Hypothalamus and Thalamus
(forebrain)

30

medulla

blood pressure, heart rate, respiration
(hindbrain)

31

pons

stages of sleep
(hindbrain)

32

cerebellum

physical coordination
(hindbrain)

33

Reticular activating system

responsible for sleeping and waking
(midbrain)

34

Thalamus

receives and integrates sensory information from sensory organs and high brain functions
(forebrain)

35

Hypothalamus

controls basic biological urges for drink, eat, sex
(forebrain)

36

Cerebral hemispheres

left - language
right - spatial organization
(forebrain)

37

Corpus Callosum

connects left and right hemispheres
coordinates functioning
(forebrain)

38

Ventricles

chambers of the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid
(forebrain)

39

cortex

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

40

frontal

reasoning, planning, emotion, speech, and movement

41

parietal

receives and integrates sensory information along with playing a role in spatial reasoning

42

occipital

receives and interprets visual information

43

temporal

processes smells and sounds
regulates emotion, memory, learning

44

Autonomic nervous system

involuntary regulates the function of various body functions

45

Somatic nervous system

voluntary regulates muscular control

46

Sympathetic nervous systems

increased arousal and energy; fight or flight

47

parasympathetic nervous systems

decreasing of arousal and energy

48

Behavior Genetics

study genetic influences on behavior

49

Genes

carry information on heredity
located on chromosomes
humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes

50

Polygenic

mental disorders are influenced by many genes

51

genotype

actual genetic structure

52

phenotype

expression of the genotype after influences such as experience and environment

53

Adoption studies

adopted parents vs biological parents

54

Natural selection

new generations adapt successfully to environmental problems

55

Attachment Theory

critical factor in development is quality of attachment formed between infant and parent
(bowlby)

56

Temperament

Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

57

Emotions

Joy
Surprise
Love
Anger
Fear
Sadness

58

Modeling

learning through imitation

59

Operant Conditioning

punishment and rewards
(Skinner)

60

Classical Conditioning

automatic response
conditional stimulus and response - result after pairing
unconditional stimulus and response- existed prior to pairing
Pavlov